## Carnon [and Core, end]

Posted in Books, Kids, pictures, R, Running, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , on June 16, 2012 by xi'an

Yet another full day working on Bayesian Core with Jean-Michel in Carnon… This morning, I ran along the canal for about an hour and at last saw some pink flamingos close enough to take pictures (if only to convince my daughter that there were flamingos in the area!). Then I worked full-time on the spatial statistics chapter, using a small dataset on sedges that we found in Gaetan and Guyon’s Spatial Statistics and Modelling. I am almost done tonight, with both path sampling and ABC R codes documented and working for this dataset. But I’d like to re-run both codes for longer to achieve smoother outcomes.

## Harmonic means, again again

Posted in Books, R, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , on January 10, 2012 by xi'an

Another arXiv posting I had had no time to comment is Nial Friel’s and Jason Wyse’s “Estimating the model evidence: a review“. This is a review in the spirit of two of our papers, “Importance sampling methods for Bayesian discrimination between embedded models” with Jean-Michel Marin (published in Jim Berger Feitschrift, Frontiers of Statistical Decision Making and Bayesian Analysis: In Honor of James O. Berger, but not mentioned in the review) and “Computational methods for Bayesian model choice” with Darren Wraith (referred to by the review). Indeed, it considers a series of competing computational methods for approximating evidence, aka marginal likelihood:

The paper correctly points out the difficulty with the naïve harmonic mean estimator. (But it does not cover the extension to the finite variance solutions found in”Importance sampling methods for Bayesian discrimination between embedded models” and in “Computational methods for Bayesian model choice“.)  It also misses the whole collection of bridge and umbrella sampling techniques covered in, e.g., Chen, Shao and Ibrahim, 2000 . In their numerical evaluations of the methods, the authors use the Pima Indian diabetes dataset we also used in “Importance sampling methods for Bayesian discrimination between embedded models“. The outcome is that the Laplace approximation does extremely well in this case (due to the fact that the posterior is very close to normal), Chib’s method being a very near second. The harmonic mean estimator does extremely poorly (not a suprise!) and the nested sampling approximation is not as accurate as the other (non-harmonic) methods. If we compare with our 2009 study, importance sampling based on the normal approximation (almost the truth!) did best, followed by our harmonic mean solution based on the same normal approximation. (Chib’s solution was then third, with a standard deviation ten times larger.)

## Computing evidence

Posted in Books, R, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , , , on November 29, 2010 by xi'an

The book Random effects and latent variable model selection, edited by David Dunson in 2008 as a Springer Lecture Note. contains several chapters dealing with evidence approximation in mixed effect models. (Incidentally, I would be interested in the story behind the  Lecture Note as I found no explanation in the backcover or in the preface. Some chapters but not all refer to a SAMSI workshop on model uncertainty…) The final chapter written by Joyee Ghosh and David Dunson (similar to a corresponding paper in JCGS) contains in particular the interesting identity that the Bayes factor opposing model h to model h-1 can be unbiasedly approximated by (the average of the terms)

$\dfrac{f(x|\theta_{i,h},\mathfrak{M}=h-1)}{f(x|\theta_{i,h},\mathfrak{M}=h)}$

when

• $\mathfrak{M}$ is the model index,
• the $\theta_{i,h}$‘s are simulated from the posterior under model h,
• the model $\mathfrak{M}=h-1$ only considers the h-1 first components of $\theta_{i,h}$,
• the prior under model h-1 is the projection of the prior under model h. (Note that this marginalisation is not the projection used in Bayesian Core.)