## Bayesian Indirect Inference and the ABC of GMM

“The practicality of estimation of a complex model using ABC is illustrated by the fact that we have been able to perform 2000 Monte Carlo replications of estimation of this simple DSGE model, using a single 32 core computer, in less than 72 hours.” (p.15)

**E**arlier this week, Michael Creel and his coauthors arXived a long paper with the above title, where ABC relates to approximate Bayesian computation. In short, this paper provides deeper theoretical foundations for the local regression post-processing of Mark Beaumont and his coauthors (2002). And some natural extensions. But apparently considering one *univariate* transform η(θ) of interest at a time. The theoretical validation of the method is that the resulting estimators converge at speed √n under some regularity assumptions. Including the identifiability of the parameter θ in the mean of the summary statistics T, which relates to our consistency result for ABC model choice. And a CLT on an available (?) preliminary estimator of η(θ).

The paper also includes a GMM version of ABC which appeal is less clear to me as it seems to rely on a preliminary estimator of the univariate transform of interest η(θ). Which is then randomized by a normal random walk. While this sounds a wee bit like noisy ABC, it differs from this generic approach as the model is not assumed to be known, but rather available through an asymptotic Gaussian approximation. (When the preliminary estimator is available in closed form, I do not see the appeal of adding this superfluous noise. When it is unavailable, it is unclear why a normal perturbation can be produced.)

“[In] the method we study, the estimator is consistent, asymptotically normal, and asymptotically as efficient as a limited information maximum likelihood estimator. It does not require either optimization, or MCMC, or the complex evaluation of the likelihood function.” (p.3)

Overall, I have trouble relating the paper to (my?) regular ABC in that the outcome of the supported procedures is an estimator rather than a posterior distribution. Those estimators are demonstrably endowed with convergence properties, including quantile estimates that can be exploited for credible intervals, but this does not produce a posterior distribution in the ~~classical~~ Bayesian sense. For instance, how can one run model comparison in this framework? Furthermore, each of those inferential steps requires solving another possibly costly optimisation problem.

“Posterior quantiles can also be used to form valid confidence intervals under correct model specification.” (p.4)

Nitpicking(ly), this statement is not correct in that posterior quantiles produce valid credible intervals and only asymptotically correct confidence intervals!

“A remedy is to choose the prior π(θ) iteratively or adaptively as functions of initial estimates of θ, so that the “prior” becomes dependent on the data, which can be denoted as π(θ|T).” (p.6)

This modification of the basic ABC scheme relying on simulation from the prior π(θ) can be found in many earlier references and the iterative construction of a better fitted importance function rather closely resembles ABC-PMC. Once again nitpicking(ly), the importance weights are defined therein (p.6) as the inverse of what they should be.

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