## another riddle

A riddle on The Riddler that pertains to game theory [and does not truly require coding]:

Ten pirates have ten gold pieces to divide and each have a unique rank, from the captain on down. The captain puts forth the first plan to divide up the gold, whereupon everyone votes. If at least half the pirates vote for the plan, it is enacted, and the gold is distributed accordingly. If the plan gets fewer than half the votes, however, the captain is killed, the second-in-command is promoted, and the process starts over.

Pirates always vote by the following rules, with the earliest rule taking precedence in a conflict:

1. Self-preservation: A pirate values his life above all else.
2. Greed: A pirate seeks as much gold as possible.
3. Bloodthirst: Failing a threat to his life or bounty, a pirate always votes to kill.

Under this system, how do the pirate divide up their gold?

An obviously final configuration is when there are only two pirates left since whatever division the first pirate proposes, including the one where he gets all the coins, the second (and last) one cannot oppose. Hence the last pirate must avoid reaching a two person configuration. On the opposite the one-to-last pirate should aim at this solution, but he is the only one! This means that for any configuration but one the last and second to last pirates will outvote the one to last. Meaning that the optimum for the second to one pirate is a partition of (9,0,1). Moving to the general case, when there remains 2p crew members, the pirate in command must secure a positive vote from  (p-1) other pirates below him, which means those (p-1) pirates must get one coin more than what they would get on the next round. This amounts to picking the (p-1) pirates with no reward on the next round and giving them one coin each, leading to a reward of 11-p for the current leader. When there remains 2p-1 crew members, the optimal solution is identical, namely to award one coin each for the (p-1) pirates with no reward on the next round. With a total of 10 pirates, the optimal configuration for the captain is to separate the 10 coins into (6,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0).

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