Archive for Bayes theorem

an introduction to MCMC sampling

Posted in Books, Kids, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , , on August 9, 2022 by xi'an

Following a rather clueless question on X validated, I had a quick read of A simple introduction to Markov Chain Monte–Carlo sampling, by Ravenzwaaij, Cassey, and Brown, published in 2018 in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, which I had never opened to this day. The setting is very basic and the authors at pain to make their explanations as simple as possible, but I find the effort somehow backfires under the excess of details. And the characteristic avoidance of mathematical symbols and formulae. For instance, in the Normal mean example that is used as introductory illustration and that confused the question originator, there is no explanation for the posterior being a N(100,15) distribution, 100 being the sample average, the notation N(μ|x,σ) is used for the posterior density, and then the Metropolis comparison brings an added layer of confusion:

“Since the target distribution is normal with mean 100 (the value of the single observation) and standard deviation 15,  this means comparing N(100|108, 15) against N(100|110, 15).”

as it most unfortunately exchanges the positions of  μ and x (which is equal to 100). There is no fundamental error there, due to the symmetry of the Normal density, but this switch from posterior to likelihood certainly contributes to the confusion of the QO. Similarly for the Metropolis step description:

“If the new proposal has a lower posterior value than the most recent sample, then randomly choose to accept or
reject the new proposal, with a probability equal to the height of both posterior values. “

And the shortcomings of MCMC may prove equally difficult to ingest: like
“The method will “work” (i.e., the sampling distribution will truly be the target distribution) as long as certain conditions are met.
Firstly, the likelihood values calculated (…) to accept or reject the new proposal must accurately reflect the density of the proposal in the target distribution. When MCMC is applied to Bayesian inference, this means that the values calculated must be posterior likelihoods, or at least be proportional to the posterior likelihood (i.e., the ratio of the likelihoods calculated relative to one another must be correct).”

which leaves me uncertain as to what the authors do mean by the alternative situation, i.e., by the proposed value not reflecting the proposal density. Again, the reluctance in using (more) formulae hurts the intended pedagogical explanations.


Posted in Books, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , , , on July 13, 2021 by xi'an

Bayesian basics in Le Monde

Posted in Statistics with tags , , , , , , on September 12, 2020 by xi'an

Bayes plaque

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , on November 22, 2019 by xi'an

a hatchet job [book review]

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , on July 20, 2019 by xi'an

By happenstance, I came across a rather savage review of John Hartigan’s Bayes Theory (1984) written by Bruce Hill in HASA, including the following slivers:

“By and large this book is at its best in developing the mathematical consequences of the theory and at its worst when dealing with the underlying ideas and concepts, which seems unfortunate since Bayesian statistics is above all an attempt to deal realistically with the nature of uncertainty and decision making.” B. Hill, JASA, 1986, p.569

“Unfortunately, those who had hoped for a serious contribution to the question will be disappointed.” B. Hill, JASA, 1986, p.569

“If the primary concern is mathematical convenience, not content or meaning, then the enterprise is a very different matter from what most of us think of as Bayesian approach.” B. Hill, JASA, 1986, p.570

“Perhaps in a century or two statisticians and probabilists will reach a similar state of maturity.” B. Hill, JASA, 1986, p.570

Perhaps this is a good place to mention that the notation in the book is formidable. Bayes’s theorem appears in a form that is  almost unrecognizable. As elsewhere, the mathematical treatment is elegant. but none of the deeper issues about the meaning and interpretation of conditional probability is discussed.” B. Hill, JASA, 1986, p.570

“The reader will find many intriguing ideas, much that is outrageous, and even some surprises (the likelihood principle is not mentioned, and conditional inference is just barely mentioned).” B. Hill, JASA, 1986, p.571

What is disappointing to me is that with a little more discipline and effort with regard to the ideas underlying Bayesian statistics, this book could have been a major contribution to the theory.” B. Hill, JASA, 1986, p.571

Another review by William Sudderth (1985, Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society) is much kinder to the book, except for the complaint that “the pace is brisk and sometimes hard to follow”.

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