## Le Monde puzzle [#1105]

Posted in Kids, R with tags , , , , , , on July 8, 2019 by xi'an

Another token game as Le Monde mathematical puzzle:

Archibald and Beatrix play with a pile of n>100 tokens, sequentially picking m tokens from the pile with m being a prime number [including m=1] or a multiple of 6, the winner taking the last tokens. If Beatrix knows n and proposes to Archibald to start, what is the value of n?

Which cannot be solved in a few lines of R code:

k<-function(n)n<4||all(n%%2:ceiling(sqrt(n))!=0)||!n%%6
g=(1:3)
n=c(4,i<-4)
while(max(n)<101){
if(k(i)) g=c(g,i) else{
while(i%in%g)i=i+1;j=4;o=!j
while(!o&(j<i)){
o=(j%in%n)&k(i-j);j=j+1}
if(o) g=c(g,i) else n=c(n,i)}
i=i+1}


since it returned no unsuccessful value above 100! With 4, 8, 85, 95, and 99 as predecessors. A rather surprising outcome and a big gap that most certainly has a straightforward explanation! Or a lack of understanding from yours truly: this post appears after the solution was published in Le Monde and I am more bemused than ever since the losing numbers in the journal are given as 4, 8, 85, … 89, and 129. With the slight hiccup that 89 is a prime number…. The other argument in the solution that there can only be five such losers is well-taken since there are only five possible non-zero remainders in the division by 6.

## another attempt at code golf

Posted in Books, Kids, R with tags , , , on June 12, 2019 by xi'an

I had another lazy weekend go at code golf, trying to code in the most condensed way the following task. Provided with a square matrix A of positive integers, keep iterating the steps

• take the highest square $$𝑥²$$ in A.
• find the smallest adjacent neighbour $$𝑛$$
• replace with x and n with nx

until no square is left (with neighbour defined as either horizontally or vertically and without wrapping around). While I managed a 217 bytes solution, compared with Robin’s 179b improvement, which remains surprising readable!, the puzzle offers two further questions:

1. is there a non-iterative way to find the final matrix B?
2. the puzzle assumes that A satisfies that at each step, the highest square and the smallest neighbour n will be unique, and that the sequence will not repeat forever. Is there a fool-proof way to check this is the case?

## an attempt at code golf

Posted in Kids, R with tags , , , , , , , , , on May 15, 2019 by xi'an

Having discovered codegolf on Stack Exchange a few weeks ago, I spotted a few interesting puzzles since then but only got the opportunity at a try over a quiet and rainy weekend (and Robin being on vacation)! The challenge was to write an R code for deciding whether or not a given integer n is congruent or not, when congruent means that it is the surface of a rectangle triangle with all three sides rational. The question included a pointer to the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture as a mean to check congruence although the real solution was provided by Tunnell’s Theorem, which states that n is congruent if and only if the number of integer solutions to 2x²+y²+8z²=n is twice as much as the number of integer solutions to 2x²+y²+32z²=n if n is odd and  the number of integer solutions to 8x²+y²+16z²=n is twice as much as the number of integer solutions to 8x²+y²+64z²=n if n is even. Although this is only true for squared-free integers. (I actually spent more time on figuring out the exact wording of the theorem than on optimising the R code!)

My original solution

p=function(n){
for (i in(n:2)^2)if(n%%i<1)n=n/i
if(n%%2){d=8;f=2;g=16}else{d=2;f=1;g=8}
A=0;b=(-n:n)^2
for(x in d*b)for(y in x+f*b)for(z in g*b)
A=A+(y+z==n)-2*(y+4*z==n)
A==0}


was quite naïve, as shown by the subsequent improvements by senior players, like the final (?) version of Guiseppe:

function(n){b=(-n:n)^2
for(i in b[b>0])n=n/i^(!n%%i)
P=2^(n%%2)
o=outer
!sum(!o(y<-o(8/P*b,2*b,"+")/P-n,z<-16/P*b,"+"),-2*!o(y,4*z,"+"))}


exhibiting a load of code golf tricks, from using an anonymous function to renaming functions with a single letter, to switching from integers to booleans and back with the exclamation mark.

## Le Monde puzzle [#1094]

Posted in Books, Kids, R with tags , , , , , , on April 23, 2019 by xi'an

A rather blah number Le Monde mathematical puzzle:

Find all integer multiples of 11111 with exactly one occurrence of each decimal digit..

Which I solved by brute force, by looking at the possible range of multiples (and  borrowing stringr:str_count from Robin!)

> combien=0
> for (i in 90001:900008){
j=i*11111
combien=combien+(min(stringr::str_count(j,paste(0:9)))==1)}
> combien
[1] 3456


And a bonus one:

Find all integers y that can write both as x³ and (10z)³+a with 1≤a≤999.

which does not offer much in terms of solutions since x³-v³=(x-v)(x²+xv+v²)=a shows that x² is less than 2a/3, meaning x is at most 25. Among such numbers only x=11,12 lead to a solution as x³=1331,1728.

## (x=scan())%in%(2*4^(n=0:x)-2^n-1)

Posted in Books, Kids, R with tags , , , , , , , , , on March 28, 2019 by xi'an

One challenge on code golf is to find the shortest possible code to identify whether or not an integer belongs to the binary cyclops numbers which binary expansion is 0, 101, 11011, 1110111, 111101111, &tc. The n-th such number being

$a(n) = 2^{2n + 1} - 2^n - 1 = 2\,4^n - 2^n - 1 = (2^n - 1)(2\,2^n + 1)$

this leads to the above solution in R (26 bits). The same length as the C solution [which I do not get]

f(n){n=~n==(n^=-~n)*~n/2;}

And with shorter versions in many esoteric languages I had never heard of, like the 8 bits Brachylog code

ḃD↔Dḍ×ᵐ≠

or the 7 bits Jelly

B¬ŒḂ⁼SƊ

As a side remark, since this was not the purpose of the game, the R code is most inefficient in creating a set of size (x+1), with most terms being Inf.