**S**omeone posted this question about Bayes factors in my book on Saturday morning and I could not believe the glaring typo pointed out there had gone through the centuries without anyone noticing! There should be no index 0 or 1 on the θ’s in either integral (or indices all over). I presume I made this typo when cutting & pasting from the previous formula (which addressed the case of two point null hypotheses), but I am quite chagrined that I sabotaged the definition of the Bayes factor for generations of readers of the Bayesian Choice. Apologies!!!

## Archive for cross validated

## a glaring mistake

Posted in Statistics with tags Bayes factor, Bayesian hypothesis testing, Bayesian textbook, cross validated, Stack Exchange, The Bayesian Choice, typos on November 28, 2018 by xi'an## questioning the Bayesian choice

Posted in Books, Kids, Mountains, pictures, Running, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags Casa Matemática Oaxaca, Catholic Church, cross validated, dominating measure, maximum entropy, Mexico, Remembrance Day, Stack Exchange, sunrise on November 13, 2018 by xi'an**W**hen I woke up (very early!) in Oaxaca, on Remembrance Day, I noticed a long question about The Bayesian Choice contents on X validated. The originator of the question (OQ) was puzzled about several statements in the book on maximum entropy methods, from the nature of the moment constraints, outside standard moments, to the existence of a maximum entropy prior (as exemplified by quantiles), to the deeper issue of the ultimate arbitrariness of “the” maximum entropy prior since it is also determined by the choice of the dominating measure. (Never neglect the dominating measure!) A more challenging concept, hopefully making it home with the OQ.

## almost uniform but far from straightforward

Posted in Books, Kids, Statistics with tags counterexample, cross validated, maximum likelihood estimation, order statistics, statistics exam, teaching, The American Statistician, triangular distribution on October 24, 2018 by xi'an**A** question on X validated about a [not exactly trivial] maximum likelihood for a triangular function led me to a fascinating case, as exposed by Olver in 1972 in The American Statistician. When considering an asymmetric triangle distribution on (0,þ), þ being fixed, the MLE for the location of the tip of the triangle is necessarily one of the observations [which was not the case in the original question on X validated ]. And not in an order statistic of rank j that does not stand in the j-th uniform partition of (0,þ). Furthermore there are opportunities for observing several global modes… In the X validated case of the symmetric triangular distribution over (0,θ), with ½θ as tip of the triangle, I could not figure an alternative to the pedestrian solution of looking separately at each of the (n+1) intervals where θ can stand and returning the associated maximum on that interval. Definitely a good (counter-)example about (in)sufficiency for class or exam!

## Gaussian hare and Laplacian tortoise

Posted in Books, Kids, pictures, Statistics, University life with tags absolute error, Carl Friedrich Gauss, cross validated, hare, La Fontaine, Le Lièvre et la Tortue, Pierre Simon Laplace, quantile regression, rien ne sert de courir, squared error, Statistical Science, tortoise on October 19, 2018 by xi'an**A** question on X validated on the comparative merits of L¹ versus L² estimation led me to the paper of Stephen Portnoy and Roger Koenker entitled “The Gaussian Hare and the Laplacian Tortoise: Computability of Squared-Error versus Absolute-Error Estimators”, which I had missed at the time, despite enjoying a subscription to Statistical Science till the late 90’s.. The authors went as far as producing a parody of Granville’s Fables de La Fontaine by sticking Laplace’s and Gauss’ heads on the tortoise and the hare!

I remember rather vividly going through Steve Stigler’s account of the opposition between Laplace’s and Legendre’s approaches, when reading his History of Statistics in 1990 or 1991… Laplace defending the absolute error on the basis of the default double-exponential (or Laplace) distribution, when Legendre and then Gauss argued in favour of the squared error loss on the basis of a defaul Normal (or Gaussian) distribution. (Edgeworth later returned to the support of the L¹ criterion.) Portnoy and Koenker focus mostly on ways of accelerating the derivation of the L¹ regression estimators. (I also learned from the paper that Koenker was one of the originators of quantile regression.)

## Bayesians conditioning on sets of measure zero

Posted in Books, Kids, pictures, Statistics, University life with tags conditional probability, conditioning, cross validated, measure zero set, probability course on September 25, 2018 by xi'an**A**lthough I have already discussed this point repeatedly on this ‘Og, I found myself replying to [yet] another question on X validated about the apparent paradox of conditioning on a set of measure zero, as for instance when computing

**P**(X=.5 | |X|=.5)

which actually has nothing to do with Bayesian inference or Bayes’ Theorem, but is simply wondering about the definition of conditional probability distributions. The OP was correct in stating that

**P**(X=x | |X|=x)

was defined up to a set of measure zero. And even that

**P**(X=.5 | |X|=.5)

could be defined arbitrarily, prior to the observation of |X|. But once |X| is observed, say to take the value 0.5, there is a zero probability that this value belongs to the set of measure zero where one defined

**P**(X=x | |X|=x)

arbitrarily. A point that always proves delicate to explain in class…!

## Riddler collector

Posted in Statistics with tags coupon collector problem, cross validated, FiveThirtyEight, hypergeometric distribution, Leonhard Euler, mathematical puzzle, Pierre Simon Laplace, The Riddler on September 22, 2018 by xi'an

**O**nce in a while a fairly standard problem makes it to the Riddler puzzle of the week. Today, it is the coupon collector problem, explained by W. Huber on X validated. (W. Huber happens to be the top contributor to this forum, with over 2000 answers, and the highest reputation closing on 200,000!) With nothing (apparently) unusual: coupons [e.g., collecting cards] come in packs of k=10 with no duplicate, and there are n=100 different coupons. What is the expected number one has to collect before getting all of the n coupons? W. Huber provides an R code to solve the recurrence on the expectation, obtained by conditioning on the number m of different coupons already collected, e(m,n,k) and hence on the remaining number of collect, with an Hypergeometric distribution for the number of new coupons in the next pack. Returning 25.23 packs on average. As is well-known, the average number of packs to complete one’s collection with the final missing card is expensively large, with more than 5 packs necessary on average. The probability distribution of the required number of packs has actually been computed by Laplace in 1774 (and then again by Euler in 1785).

## approximative Laplace

Posted in Books, R, Statistics with tags cross validated, Laplace approximation, Monte Carlo Statistical Methods, numerical integration, typos on August 18, 2018 by xi'an**I** came across this question on X validated that wondered about one of our examples in Monte Carlo Statistical Methods. We have included a section on Laplace approximations in the Monte Carlo integration chapter, with a bit of reluctance on my side as this type of integral approximation does not directly connect to Monte Carlo methods. Even less in the case of the example as we aimed at replacing a coverage probability for a Gamma distribution with a formal Laplace approximation. Formal due to the lack of asymptotics, besides the length of the interval (a,b) which probability is approximated. Hence, on top of the typos, the point of the example is not crystal clear, in that it does not show much more than the step-function approximation to the function converges as the interval length gets to zero. For instance, using instead a flat approximation produces an almost as good approximation:

> xact(5,2,7,9) [1] 0.1933414 > laplace(5,2,7,9) [1] 0.1933507 > flat(5,2,7,9) [1] 0.1953668

What may be more surprising is the resilience of the approximation as the width of the interval increases:

> xact(5,2,5,11) [1] 0.53366 > lapl(5,2,5,11) [1] 0.5354954 > plain(5,2,5,11) [1] 0.5861004 > quad(5,2,5,11) [1] 0.434131