Archive for Galaxy

ordered allocation sampler

Posted in Books, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on November 29, 2021 by xi'an

Recently, Pierpaolo De Blasi and María Gil-Leyva arXived a proposal for a novel Gibbs sampler for mixture models. In both finite and infinite mixture models. In connection with Pitman (1996) theory of species sampling and with interesting features in terms of removing the vexing label switching features.

The key idea is to work with the mixture components in the random order of appearance in an exchangeable sequence from the mixing distribution (…) In accordance with the order of appearance, we derive a new Gibbs sampling algorithm that we name the ordered allocation sampler. “

This central idea is thus a reinterpretation of the mixture model as the marginal of the component model when its parameter is distributed as a species sampling variate. An ensuing marginal algorithm is to integrate out the weights and the allocation variables to only consider the non-empty component parameters and the partition function, which are label invariant. Which reminded me of the proposal we made in our 2000 JASA paper with Gilles Celeux and Merrilee Hurn (one of my favourite papers!). And of the [first paper in Statistical Methodology] 2004 partitioned importance sampling version with George Casella and Marty Wells. As in the later, the solution seems to require the prior on the component parameters to be conjugate (as I do not see a way to produce an unbiased estimator of the partition allocation probabilities).

The ordered allocation sample considers the posterior distribution of the different object made of the parameters and of the sequence of allocations to the components for the sample written in a given order, ie y¹,y², &tc. Hence y¹ always gets associated with component 1, y² with either component 1 or component 2, and so on. For this distribution, the full conditionals are available, incl. the full posterior on the number m of components, only depending on the data through the partition sizes and the number m⁺ of non-empty components. (Which relates to the debate as to whether or not m is estimable…) This sequential allocation reminded me as well of an earlier 2007 JRSS paper by Nicolas Chopin. Albeit using particles rather than Gibbs and applied to a hidden Markov model. Funny enough, their synthetic dataset univ4 almost resembles the Galaxy dataset (as in the above picture of mine)!

thermodynamic integration plus temperings

Posted in Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on July 30, 2019 by xi'an

Biljana Stojkova and David Campbel recently arXived a paper on the used of parallel simulated tempering for thermodynamic integration towards producing estimates of marginal likelihoods. Resulting into a rather unwieldy acronym of PT-STWNC for “Parallel Tempering – Simulated Tempering Without Normalizing Constants”. Remember that parallel tempering runs T chains in parallel for T different powers of the likelihood (from 0 to 1), potentially swapping chain values at each iteration. Simulated tempering monitors a single chain that explores both the parameter space and the temperature range. Requiring a prior on the temperature. Whose optimal if unrealistic choice was found by Geyer and Thomson (1995) to be proportional to the inverse (and unknown) normalising constant (albeit over a finite set of temperatures). Proposing the new temperature instead via a random walk, the Metropolis within Gibbs update of the temperature τ then involves normalising constants.

“This approach is explored as proof of concept and not in a general sense because the precision of the approximation depends on the quality of the interpolator which in turn will be impacted by smoothness and continuity of the manifold, properties which are difficult to characterize or guarantee given the multi-modal nature of the likelihoods.”

To bypass this issue, the authors pick for their (formal) prior on the temperature τ, a prior such that the profile posterior distribution on τ is constant, i.e. the joint distribution at τ and at the mode [of the conditional posterior distribution of the parameter] is constant. This choice makes for a closed form prior, provided this mode of the tempered posterior can de facto be computed for each value of τ. (However it is unclear to me why the exact mode would need to be used.) The resulting Metropolis ratio becomes independent of the normalising constants. The final version of the algorithm runs an extra exchange step on both this simulated tempering version and the untempered version, i.e., the original unnormalised posterior. For the marginal likelihood, thermodynamic integration is invoked, following Friel and Pettitt (2008), using simulated tempering samples of (θ,τ) pairs (associated instead with the above constant profile posterior) and simple Riemann integration of the expected log posterior. The paper stresses the gain due to a continuous temperature scale, as it “removes the need for optimal temperature discretization schedule.” The method is applied to the Glaxy (mixture) dataset in order to compare it with the earlier approach of Friel and Pettitt (2008), resulting in (a) a selection of the mixture with five components and (b) much more variability between the estimated marginal  likelihoods for different numbers of components than in the earlier approach (where the estimates hardly move with k). And (c) a trimodal distribution on the means [and unimodal on the variances]. This example is however hard to interpret, since there are many contradicting interpretations for the various numbers of components in the model. (I recall Radford Neal giving an impromptu talks at an ICMS workshop in Edinburgh in 2001 to warn us we should not use the dataset without a clear(er) understanding of the astrophysics behind. If I remember well he was excluded all low values for the number of components as being inappropriate…. I also remember taking two days off with Peter Green to go climbing Craigh Meagaidh, as the only authorised climbing place around during the foot-and-mouth epidemics.) In conclusion, after presumably too light a read (I did not referee the paper!), it remains unclear to me why the combination of the various tempering schemes is bringing a noticeable improvement over the existing. At a given computational cost. As the temperature distribution does not seem to favour spending time in the regions where the target is most quickly changing. As such the algorithm rather appears as a special form of exchange algorithm.

O’Bayes 19/1 [snapshots]

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on June 30, 2019 by xi'an

Although the tutorials of O’Bayes 2019 of yesterday were poorly attended, albeit them being great entries into objective Bayesian model choice, recent advances in MCMC methodology, and the multiple layers of BART, for which I have to blame myself for sticking the beginning of O’Bayes too closely to the end of BNP as only the most dedicated could achieve the commuting from Oxford to Coventry to reach Warwick in time, the first day of talks were well attended, despite weekend commitments, conference fatigue, and perfect summer weather! Here are some snapshots from my bench (and apologies for not covering better the more theoretical talks I had trouble to follow, due to an early and intense morning swimming lesson! Like Steve Walker’s utility based derivation of priors that generalise maximum entropy priors. But being entirely independent from the model does not sound to me like such a desirable feature… And Natalia Bochkina’s Bernstein-von Mises theorem for a location scale semi-parametric model, including a clever construct of a mixture of two Dirichlet priors to achieve proper convergence.)

Jim Berger started the day with a talk on imprecise probabilities, involving the society for imprecise probability, which I discovered while reading Keynes’ book, with a neat resolution of the Jeffreys-Lindley paradox, when re-expressing the null as an imprecise null, with the posterior of the null no longer converging to one, with a limit depending on the prior modelling, if involving a prior on the bias as well, with Chris discussing the talk and mentioning a recent work with Edwin Fong on reinterpreting marginal likelihood as exhaustive X validation, summing over all possible subsets of the data [using log marginal predictive].Håvard Rue did a follow-up talk from his Valencià O’Bayes 2015 talk on PC-priors. With a pretty hilarious introduction on his difficulties with constructing priors and counseling students about their Bayesian modelling. With a list of principles and desiderata to define a reference prior. However, I somewhat disagree with his argument that the Kullback-Leibler distance from the simpler (base) model cannot be scaled, as it is essentially a log-likelihood. And it feels like multivariate parameters need some sort of separability to define distance(s) to the base model since the distance somewhat summarises the whole departure from the simpler model. (Håvard also joined my achievement of putting an ostrich in a slide!) In his discussion, Robin Ryder made a very pragmatic recap on the difficulties with constructing priors. And pointing out a natural link with ABC (which brings us back to Don Rubin’s motivation for introducing the algorithm as a formal thought experiment).

Sara Wade gave the final talk on the day about her work on Bayesian cluster analysis. Which discussion in Bayesian Analysis I alas missed. Cluster estimation, as mentioned frequently on this blog, is a rather frustrating challenge despite the simple formulation of the problem. (And I will not mention Larry’s tequila analogy!) The current approach is based on loss functions directly addressing the clustering aspect, integrating out the parameters. Which produces the interesting notion of neighbourhoods of partitions and hence credible balls in the space of partitions. It still remains unclear to me that cluster estimation is at all achievable, since the partition space explodes with the sample size and hence makes the most probable cluster more and more unlikely in that space. Somewhat paradoxically, the paper concludes that estimating the cluster produces a more reliable estimator on the number of clusters than looking at the marginal distribution on this number. In her discussion, Clara Grazian also pointed the ambivalent use of clustering, where the intended meaning somehow diverges from the meaning induced by the mixture model.


Posted in Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , on September 19, 2012 by xi'an

Today, I attended a meeting at the Paris observatory about the incoming launch of the Gaia satellite and the associated data (mega-)challenges. To borrow from the webpage, “To create the largest and most precise three dimensional chart of our Galaxy by providing unprecedented positional and radial velocity measurements for about one billion stars in our Galaxy and throughout the Local Group.” The amount of data that will be produced by this satellite is staggering: Gaia will take pictures of roughly 1Giga pixels that will be processed both on-board and on Earth, transmitting over five years a pentabyte of data that need to be processed fairly efficiently to be at all useful! The European consortium operating this satellite has planned for specific tasks dedicated to data handling and processing, which is a fabulous opportunity for would-be astrostatisticians! (Unsurprisingly, at least half of the tasks are statistics related, either at the noise reduction stage or at the estimation stage.) Another amazing feature of the project is that it will result in open data, the outcome of the observations being open to everyone for analyse… I am clearly looking forward the next meeting to understand better the structure of the data and the challenges simulation methods could help to solve!

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