Archive for Linux

Extending R

Posted in Books, Kids, R, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on July 13, 2016 by xi'an

As I was previously unaware of this book coming up, my surprise and excitement were both extreme when I received it from CRC Press a few weeks ago! John Chambers, one of the fathers of S, precursor of R, had just published a book about extending R. It covers some reflections of the author on programming and the story of R (Parts 2 and 1),  and then focus on object-oriented programming (Part 3) and the interfaces from R to other languages (Part 4). While this is “only” a programming book, and thus not strictly appealing to statisticians, reading one of the original actors’ thoughts on the past, present, and future of R is simply fantastic!!! And John Chambers is definitely not calling to simply start over and build something better, as Ross Ihaka did in this [most read] post a few years ago. (It is also great to see the names of friends appearing at times, like Julie, Luke, and Duncan!)

“I wrote most of the original software for S3 methods, which were useful for their application, in the early 1990s.”

In the (hi)story part, Chambers delves into the details of the evolution of S at Bells Labs, as described in his [first]  “blue book” (which I kept on my shelf until very recently, next to the “white book“!) and of the occurrence of R in the mid-1990s. I find those sections fascinating maybe the more because I am somewhat of a contemporary, having first learned Fortran (and Pascal) in the mid-1980’s, before moving in the early 1990s to C (that I mostly coded as translated Pascal!), S-plus and eventually R, in conjunction with a (forced) migration from Unix to Linux, as my local computer managers abandoned Unix and mainframe in favour of some virtual Windows machines. And as I started running R on laptops with the help of friends more skilled than I (again keeping some of the early R manuals on my shelf until recently). Maybe one of the most surprising things about those reminiscences is that the very first version of R was dated Feb 29, 2000! Not because of Feb 29, 2000 (which, as Chambers points out, is the first use of the third-order correction to the Gregorian calendar, although I would have thought 1600 was the first one), but because I would have thought it appeared earlier, in conjunction with my first Linux laptop, but this memory is alas getting too vague!

As indicated above, the book is mostly about programming, which means in my case that some sections are definitely beyond my reach! For instance, reading “the onus is on the person writing the calling function to avoid using a reference object as the argument to an existing function that expects a named list” is not immediately clear… Nonetheless, most sections are readable [at my level] and enlightening about the mottoes “everything that exists is an object” and “everything that happens is a function” repeated throughout.  (And about my psycho-rigid ways of translating Pascal into every other language!) I obviously learned about new commands and notions, like the difference between

x <- 3


x <<- 3

(but I was disappointed to learn that the number of <‘s was not related with the depth or height of the allocation!) In particular, I found the part about replacement fascinating, explaining how a command like

diag(x)[i] = 3

could modify x directly. (While definitely worth reading, the chapter on R packages could have benefited from more details. But as Chambers points out there are whole books about this.) Overall, I am afraid the book will not improve my (limited) way of programming in R but I definitely recommend it to anyone even moderately skilled in the language.

Ubuntu issues

Posted in Kids, Linux with tags , , , on February 28, 2015 by xi'an

screen shot with ubuntu 10.10It may be that weekends are the wrong time to tamper with computer OS… Last Sunday, I noticed my Bluetooth icon had a “turn off” option and since I only use Bluetooth for my remote keyboard and mouse when in Warwick, I turned it off, thinking I would turn it on again next week. This alas led to a series of problems, maybe as a coincidence since I also updated the Kubuntu 14.04 system over the weekend.

  1. I cannot turn Bluetooth on again! My keyboard and mouse are no longer recognised or detected. No Bluetooth adapter is found by the system setting. Similarly, sudo modprobe bluetooth shows nothing. I have installed a new interface called Blueman but to no avail. The fix suggested on forums to run rfkill unblock bluetooth does not work either… Actually rfkill list all only returns the wireless device. Which is working fine.
  2. My webcam vanished as well. It was working fine before the weekend.
  3. Accessing some webpages, including all New York Times articles, now takes forever on Firefox! If less on Chrome.

Is this a curse of sorts?!

As an aside, I also found this week that I cannot update Adobe reader from version 9 to version 11, as Adobe does not support Linux versions any more… Another bummer. If one wants to stick to acrobat.

Update [03/02]

Thanks to Ingmar and Thomas, I got  both my problems solved! The Bluetooth restarted after I shut down my unplugged computer, in connection with an USB over-current protection. And Thomas figured out my keyboard had a key to turn the webcam off and on, key that I had pressed when trying to restart the Bluetooth device. Et voilà!

Glibc GHOST vulnerability

Posted in Linux with tags , , , , , on January 28, 2015 by xi'an

screen shot with ubuntu 10.10Just heard about a security vulnerability on Linux machines running Red Hat version 5 to 7, Ubuntu 10.04 and 12.04, Debian version 7, Fedora versions 19 and older, and SUSE versions 11 and older. The vulnerability occurs through a buffer overflow from some functions in the C library Glibc, which allows for a remote code to execute, and the fix to the problem is indicated on that NixCRaft webpage. (It is also possible to run the GHOST C code if you want to live dangerously!)



BibTool on the air

Posted in Books, Linux, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , on October 23, 2014 by xi'an

Yesterday night, just before leaving for Coventry, I realised I had about 30 versions of my “mother of all .bib” bib file, spread over directories and with broken links with the original mother file… (I mean, I always create bib files in new directories by a hard link,

    ln ~/mother.bib

but they eventually and inexplicably end up with a life of their own!) So I decided a Spring clean-up was in order and installed BibTool on my Linux machine to gather all those versions into a new encompassing all-inclusive bib reference. I did not take advantage of the many possibilities of the program, written by Gerd Neugebauer, but it certainly solved my problem: once I realised I had to set the variates

check.double = on
check.double.delete = on
pass.comments = off

all I had to do was to call

bibtool -s -i ../*/*.bib -o mother.bib
bibtool -d -i mother.bib -o mother.bib
bibtool -s -i mother.bib -o mother.bib

to merge all bib file and then to get rid of the duplicated entries in mother.bib (the -d option commented out the duplicates and the second call with -s removed them). And to remove the duplicated definitions in the preamble of the file. This took me very little time in the RER train from Paris-Dauphine (where I taught this morning, having a hard time to make the students envision the empirical cdf as an average of Dirac masses!) to Roissy airport, in contrast with my pedestrian replacement of all stray siblings of the mother bib into new proper hard links, one by one. I am sure there is a bash command that could have done it in one line, but I spent instead my flight to Birmingham switching all existing bib files, one by one…

echo vulnerable

Posted in Linux with tags , , , on October 3, 2014 by xi'an

screen shot with ubuntu 10.10Even though most people are now aware of the Shellshock security problem on the bash shell, here is a test to check whether your Unix system is at risk:

env x='() { :;}; echo vulnerable' bash -c 'echo hello'

if the prompt returns vulnerable, it means the system is vulnerable and needs to be upgraded with the proper security patch… For instance running

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install --only-upgrade bash

for Debian/Ubuntu versions. Check Apple support page for Apple OS.

implementing reproducible research [short book review]

Posted in Books, Kids, pictures, R, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on July 15, 2014 by xi'an

As promised, I got back to this book, Implementing reproducible research (after the pigeons had their say). I looked at it this morning while monitoring my students taking their last-chance R exam (definitely last chance as my undergraduate R course is not reconoduced next year). The book is in fact an edited collection of papers on tools, principles, and platforms around the theme of reproducible research. It obviously links with other themes like open access, open data, and open software. All positive directions that need more active support from the scientific community. In particular the solutions advocated through this volume are mostly Linux-based. Among the tools described in the first chapter, knitr appears as an alternative to sweave. I used the later a while ago and while I like its philosophy. it does not extend to situations where the R code within takes too long to run… (Or maybe I did not invest enough time to grasp the entire spectrum of sweave.) Note that, even though the book is part of the R Series of CRC Press, many chapters are unrelated to R. And even more [unrelated] to statistics.

This limitation is somewhat my difficulty with [adhering to] the global message proposed by the book. It is great to construct such tools that monitor and archive successive versions of code and research, as anyone can trace back the research steps conducting to the published result(s). Using some of the platforms covered by the book establishes for instance a superb documentation principle, going much further than just providing an “easy” verification tool against fraudulent experiments. The notion of a super-wiki where notes and preliminary versions and calculations (and dead ends and failures) would be preserved for open access is just as great. However this type of research processing and discipline takes time and space and human investment, i.e. resources that are sparse and costly. Complex studies may involve enormous amounts of data and, neglecting the notions of confidentiality and privacy, the cost of storing such amounts is significant. Similarly for experiments that require days and weeks of huge clusters. I thus wonder where those resources would be found (journals, universities, high tech companies, …?) for the principle to hold in full generality and how transient they could prove. One cannot expect the research time to garantee availability of those meta-documents for remote time horizons. Just as a biased illustration, checking the available Bayes’ notebooks meant going to a remote part of London at a specific time and with a preliminary appointment. Those notebooks are not available on line for free. But for how long?

“So far, Bob has been using Charlie’s old computer, using Ubuntu 10.04. The next day, he is excited to find the new computer Alice has ordered for him has arrived. He installs Ubuntu 12.04” A. Davison et al.

Putting their principles into practice, the authors of Implementing reproducible research have made all chapters available for free on the Open Science Framework. I thus encourage anyone interesting in those principles (and who would not be?!) to peruse the chapters and see how they can benefit from and contribute to open and reproducible research.

hiccups or death throes for pangolin?

Posted in Linux, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , on October 25, 2013 by xi'an

screen shot with ubuntu 10.10Today my Ubuntu system had a strange pathology, almost freezing in any Internet connection, whether using a cable connection or wireless, even ping did not answer and nothing wrong on the process table… I checked the hardware by dual-booting on windows (for the first time since I installed Linux on this laptop) and seeing no such feature on Explorer. After a few reboots, it came back to normal. I wonder if this is an incomplete safety upgrade or a signal that my cheap laptop is coming close to the end of its life cycle. A life started right after Kyoto. Since I am leaving for Pittsburgh and Toronto next week, I should try to re-install a Linux version on another machine this weekend….


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