Archive for Luminy

back from CIRM

Posted in Kids, Mountains, pictures, Running, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on March 20, 2016 by xi'an

near Col de Sugiton, Parc National des Calanques, Marseille, March 01, 2016As should be clear from earlier posts, I tremendously enjoyed this past week at CIRM, Marseille, and not only for providing a handy retreat from where I could go running and climbing at least twice a day!  The programme (with slides and films soon to be available on the CIRM website) was very well-designed with mini-courses and talks of appropriate length and frequency. Thanks to Nicolas Chopin (ENSAE ParisTech) and Gilles Celeux  (Inria Paris) for constructing so efficiently this program and to the local organisers Thibaut Le Gouic (Ecole Centrale de Marseille), Denys Pommeret (Aix-Marseille Université), and Thomas Willer (Aix-Marseille Université) for handling the practical side of inviting and accommodating close to a hundred participants on this rather secluded campus. I hope we can reproduce the experiment a few years from now. Maybe in 2018 if we manage to squeeze it between BayesComp 2018 [ex-MCMski] and ISBA 2018 in Edinburgh.

One of the bonuses of staying at CIRM is indeed that it is fairly isolated and far from the fury of down-town Marseille, which may sound like a drag, but actually helps with concentration and interactions. Actually, the whole Aix-Marseille University campus of Luminy on which CIRM is located is surprisingly quiet: we were there in the very middle of the teaching semester and saw very few students around (although even fewer boars!). It is a bit of a mystery that a campus built in such a beautiful location with the Mont Puget as its background and the song of cicadas as the only source of “noise” is not better exploited towards attracting more researchers and students. However remoteness and lack of efficient public transportation may explain a lot about this low occupation of the campus. As may the poor quality of most buildings on the campus, which must be unbearable during the summer months…

In a potential planning for the future Bayesian week at CIRM, I think we could have some sort of poster sessions after-dinner (with maybe a cash bar operated by some of the invited students since there is no bar at CIRM or around). Or trail-running under moonlight, trying to avoid tripping over rummaging boars… A sort of Kaggle challenge would be nice but presumably too hard to organise. As a simpler joint activity, we could collectively contribute to some wikipedia pages related to Bayesian and computational statistics.

Sugiton at dawn

Posted in Mountains, pictures, Running, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , on March 5, 2016 by xi'an

nigh boar at CIRM

Posted in Kids, pictures, Running, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , on March 4, 2016 by xi'an

a foraging boar a few metres away from CIRM, not even bothered by my presence, Marseille, March 04, 2016

at CIRM [#3]

Posted in Kids, Mountains, pictures, Running, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 4, 2016 by xi'an

Simon Barthelmé gave his mini-course on EP, with loads of details on the implementation of the method. Focussing on the EP-ABC and MCMC-EP versions today. Leaving open the difficulty of assessing to which limit EP is converging. But mentioning the potential for asynchronous EP (on which I would like to hear more). Ironically using several times a logistic regression example, if not on the Pima Indians benchmark! He also talked about approximate EP solutions that relate to consensus MCMC. With a connection to Mark Beaumont’s talk at NIPS [at the time as mine!] on the comparison with ABC. While we saw several talks on EP during this week, I am still agnostic about the potential of the approach. It certainly produces a fast proxy to the true posterior and hence can be exploited ad nauseam in inference methods based on pseudo-models like indirect inference. In conjunction with other quick and dirty approximations when available. As in ABC, it would be most useful to know how far from the (ideal) posterior distribution does the approximation stands. Machine learning approaches presumably allow for an evaluation of the predictive performances, but less so for the modelling accuracy, even with new sampling steps. [But I know nothing, I know!]

Dennis Prangle presented some on-going research on high dimension [data] ABC. Raising the question of what is the true meaning of dimension in ABC algorithms. Or of sample size. Because the inference relies on the event d(s(y),s(y’))≤ξ or on the likelihood l(θ|x). Both one-dimensional. Mentioning Iain Murray’s talk at NIPS [that I also missed]. Re-expressing as well the perspective that ABC can be seen as a missing or estimated normalising constant problem as in Bornn et al. (2015) I discussed earlier. The central idea is to use SMC to simulate a particle cloud evolving as the target tolerance ξ decreases. Which supposes a latent variable structure lurking in the background.

Judith Rousseau gave her talk on non-parametric mixtures and the possibility to learn parametrically about the component weights. Starting with a rather “magic” result by Allman et al. (2009) that three repeated observations per individual, all terms in a mixture are identifiable. Maybe related to that simpler fact that mixtures of Bernoullis are not identifiable while mixtures of Binomial are identifiable, even when n=2. As “shown” in this plot made for X validated. Actually truly related because Allman et al. (2009) prove identifiability through a finite dimensional model. (I am surprised I missed this most interesting paper!) With the side condition that a mixture of p components made of r Bernoulli products is identifiable when p ≥ 2[log² r] +1, when log² is base 2-logarithm. And [x] the upper rounding. I also find most relevant this distinction between the weights and the remainder of the mixture as weights behave quite differently, hardly parameters in a sense.

morning run around Mont Puget

Posted in Mountains, pictures, Running, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , on March 2, 2016 by xi'an

at CIRM [#2]

Posted in Mountains, pictures, Running, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 2, 2016 by xi'an

Sylvia Richardson gave a great talk yesterday on clustering applied to variable selection, which first raised [in me] a usual worry of the lack of background model for clustering. But the way she used this notion meant there was an infinite Dirichlet process mixture model behind. This is quite novel [at least for me!] in that it addresses the covariates and not the observations themselves. I still wonder at the meaning of the cluster as, if I understood properly, the dependent variable is not involved in the clustering. Check her R package PReMiuM for a practical implementation of the approach. Later, Adeline Samson showed us the results of using pMCM versus particle Gibbs for diffusion processes where (a) pMCMC was behaving much worse than particle Gibbs and (b) EM required very few particles and Metropolis-Hastings steps to achieve convergence, when compared with posterior approximations.

Today Pierre Druilhet explained to the audience of the summer school his measure theoretic approach [I discussed a while ago] to the limit of proper priors via q-vague convergence, with the paradoxical phenomenon that a Be(n⁻¹,n⁻¹) converges to a sum of two Dirac masses when the parameter space is [0,1] but to Haldane’s prior when the space is (0,1)! He also explained why the Jeffreys-Lindley paradox vanishes when considering different measures [with an illustration that came from my Statistica Sinica 1993 paper]. Pierre concluded with the above opposition between two Bayesian paradigms, a [sort of] tale of two sigma [fields]! Not that I necessarily agree with the first paradigm that priors are supposed to have generated the actual parameter. If only because it mechanistically excludes all improper priors…

Darren Wilkinson talked about yeast, which is orders of magnitude more exciting than it sounds, because this is Bayesian big data analysis in action! With significant (and hence impressive) results based on stochastic dynamic models. And massive variable selection techniques. Scala, Haskell, Frege, OCaml were [functional] languages he mentioned that I had never heard of before! And Daniel Rudolf concluded the [intense] second day of this Bayesian week at CIRM with a description of his convergence results for (rather controlled) noisy MCMC algorithms.

fit for Les Calanques

Posted in Mountains, Running with tags , , , , , , , , , on March 1, 2016 by xi'an


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