## Archive for Monte Carlo approximations

## dial e for Buffon

Posted in Books, Kids, Statistics with tags Alfréd Rényi, arithmétique morale, Buffon's needle, e, exponentiation, π, Monte Carlo approximations, The Riddler on January 29, 2021 by xi'an**T**he use of Buffon’s needle to approximate π by a (slow) Monte Carlo estimate is a well-known Monte Carlo illustration. But that a similar experiment can be used for approximating *e* seems less known, if judging from the 08 January riddle from The Riddler. When considering a sequence of length n exchangeable random variables, the probability of a particuliar ordering of the sequence is 1/n!. Thus, counting how many darts need be thrown on a target until the distance to the centre increases produces a random number N≥2 with pmf 1/n!-1/(n+1)! and with expectation equal to *e*. Which can be checked as follows

p=diff(c(0,1+which(diff(rt(1e5))>0))) sum((p>1)*((p+1)*(p+2)/2-1)+2*(p==1))

which recycles simulations by using every one as starting point (codegolfers welcome!).

An earlier post on the ‘Og essentially covered the same notion, also linking it to Forsythe’s method and to Gnedenko. (Rényi could also be involved!) Paradoxically, the extra-credit given to the case when the target is divided into equal distance tori is much less exciting…

## an arithmetic mean identity

Posted in Books, pictures, R, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags arithmetic mean, Bayesian Analysis, conjugate normal model, harmonic mean estimator, HPD region, JSM 2009, marginal likelihood, MaxEnt2009, mixture example, Monte Carlo approximations, nested sampling, R, Université Paris Dauphine on December 19, 2019 by xi'an**A **2017 paper by Ana Pajor published in Bayesian Analysis addresses my favourite problem [of computing the marginal likelihood] and which I discussed on the ‘Og, linking with another paper by Lenk published in 2012 in JCGS. That I already discussed here last year. Lenk’s (2009) paper is actually using a technique related to the harmonic mean correction based on HPD regions Darren Wraith and myself proposed at MaxEnt 2009. And which Jean-Michel and I presented at Frontiers of statistical decision making and Bayesian analysis in 2010. As I had only vague memories about the arithmetic mean version, we discussed the paper together with graduate students in Paris Dauphine.

The arithmetic mean solution, representing the marginal likelihood as the *prior* average of the likelihood, is a well-known approach used as well as the basis for nested sampling. With the improvement consisting in restricting the simulation to a set Ð with sufficiently high posterior probability. I am quite uneasy about P(Ð|y) estimated by 1 as the shape of the set containing all posterior simulations is completely arbitrary, parameterisation dependent, and very random since based on the extremes of this posterior sample. Plus, the set Ð converges to the entire parameter space with the number of posterior simulations. An alternative that we advocated in our earlier paper is to take Ð as the HPD region or a variational Bayes version . But the central issue with the HPD regions is how to construct these from an MCMC output and how to compute both P(Ð) and P(Ð|y). It does not seem like a good idea to set P(Ð|x) to the intended α level for the HPD coverage. Using a non-parametric version for estimating Ð could be in the end the only reasonable solution.

As a test, I reran the example of a conjugate normal model used in the paper, based on (exact) simulations from both the prior and the posterior, and obtained approximations that were all close from the true marginal. With Chib’s being exact in that case (of course!), and an arithmetic mean surprisingly close without an importance correction:

> print(c(hame,chme,came,chib)) [1] -107.6821 -106.5968 -115.5950 -115.3610

Both harmonic versions are of the right order but not trustworthy, the truncation to such a set Ð as the one chosen in this paper having little impact.

## Bernoulli race particle filters

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics, University life with tags auxiliary variable, Bernoulli distribution, Bernoulli factory, intractable constant, Jakob Bernoulli, Monte Carlo approximations, normalising constant, particle filters, University of Oxford on March 27, 2019 by xi'an**S**ebastian Schmon, Arnaud Doucet and George Deligiannidis have recently arXived an AISTATS paper with the above nice title. The motivation for the extension is facing intractable particle weights for state space models, as for instance in discretised diffusions. In most cases, actually, the weight associated with the optimal forward proposal involves an intractable integral which is the predictive of the current observed variate given the past hidden states. And in some cases, there exist unbiased and non-negative estimators of the targets, which can thus be substituted, *volens nolens*, to the original filter. As in many pseudo-marginal derivations, this new algorithm can be interpreted as targeting an augmented distribution that involves the auxiliary random variates behind the unbiased estimators of the particle weights. A worthwhile remark since it allows for the preservation of the original target as in (8) provided the auxiliary random variates are simulated from the right conditionals. (At least ideally as I have no clue when this is feasible.)

“if Bernoulli resampling is per-formed, the variance for any Monte Carlo estimate will be the same as if the true weights were known and one applies standard multinomial resampling.”

The Bernoulli race in the title stands for a version of the Bernoulli factory problem, where an intractable and bounded component of the weight can be turned into a probability, for which a Bernoulli draw is available, hence providing a Multinomial sampling with the intractable weights since replacing the exact probability with an estimate does not modify the Bernoulli distribution, amazingly so! Even with intractable normalising constants in particle filters. The practicality of the approach may however be restricted by the possibility of some intractable terms being very small and requiring many rejections for one acceptance, as the number of attempts is a compound geometric. The intractability may add to the time request the drawback of keeping this feature hidden as well. Or force some premature interruption in the settings of a parallel implementation.

## an interesting identity

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics, University life with tags cosmostats, cross validated, IAP, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Monte Carlo approximations, Monte Carlo Statistical Methods, Pierre Simon Laplace, Rao-Blackwellisation, textbooks on March 1, 2018 by xi'an**A**nother interesting **X** validated question, another remembrance of past discussions on that issue. Discussions that took place in the Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, nearby this painting of Laplace, when working on our cosmostats project. Namely the potential appeal of recycling multidimensional simulations by permuting the individual components in nearly independent settings. As shown by the variance decomposition in my answer, when opposing N iid pairs (X,Y) to the N combinations of √N simulations of X and √N simulations of Y, the comparison

unsurprisingly gives the upper hand to the iid sequence. A sort of converse to Rao-Blackwellisation…. Unless the production of N simulations gets much more costly when compared with the N function evaluations. No wonder we never see this proposal in Monte Carlo textbooks!