“Moreover, IvD point out an error in Nobile’s derivation which can alter its stationary distribution. Ironically, as we shall see, the algorithms of IvD also contain an error.”

**X**iyun Jiao and David A. van Dyk arXived a paper correcting an MCMC sampler and R package MNP for the multivariate probit model, proposed by Imai and van Dyk in 2005. [Hence the abbreviation IvD in the above quote.] Earlier versions of the Gibbs sampler for the multivariate probit model by Rob McCulloch and Peter Rossi in 1994, with a Metropolis update added by Agostino Nobile, and finally an improved version developed by Imai and van Dyk in 2005. As noted in the above quote, Jiao and van Dyk have discovered two mistakes in this latest version, jeopardizing the validity of the output.

The multivariate probit model considered here is a multinomial model where the occurrence of the k-th category is represented as the k-th component of a (multivariate) normal (correlated) vector being the largest of all components. The latent normal model being non-identifiable since invariant by either translation or scale, identifying constraints are used in the literature. This means using a covariance matrix of the form Σ/trace(Σ), where Σ is an inverse Wishart random matrix. In their 2005 implementation, relying on marginal data augmentation—which essentially means simulating the non-identifiable part repeatedly at various steps of the data augmentation algorithm—, Imai and van Dyk missed a translation term and a constraint on the simulated matrices that lead to simulations outside the rightful support, as illustrated from the above graph [snapshot from the arXived paper].

Since the IvD method is used in many subsequent papers, it is quite important that these mistakes are signalled and corrected. [Another snapshot above shows how much both algorithm differ!] Without much thinking about this, I [thus idly] wonder why an identifying prior is not taking the place of a hard identifying constraint, as it should solve the issue more nicely. In that it would create less constraints and more entropy (!) in exploring the augmented space, while theoretically providing a convergent approximation of the identifiable parts. I may (must!) however miss an obvious constraint preventing this implementation.