Archive for noise contrasting estimation

BayesComp²³ [aka MCMski⁶]

Posted in Books, Mountains, pictures, Running, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 20, 2023 by xi'an

The main BayesComp meeting started right after the ABC workshop and went on at a grueling pace, and offered a constant conundrum as to which of the four sessions to attend, the more when trying to enjoy some outdoor activity during the lunch breaks. My overall feeling is that it went on too fast, too quickly! Here are some quick and haphazard notes from some of the talks I attended, as for instance the practical parallelisation of an SMC algorithm by Adrien Corenflos, the advances made by Giacommo Zanella on using Bayesian asymptotics to assess robustness of Gibbs samplers to the dimension of the data (although with no assessment of the ensuing time requirements), a nice session on simulated annealing, from black holes to Alps (if the wrong mountain chain for Levi), and the central role of contrastive learning à la Geyer (1994) in the GAN talks of Veronika Rockova and Éric Moulines. Victor  Elvira delivered an enthusiastic talk on our massively recycled importance on-going project that we need to complete asap!

While their earlier arXived paper was on my reading list, I was quite excited by Nicolas Chopin’s (along with Mathieu Gerber) work on some quadrature stabilisation that is not QMC (but not too far either), with stratification over the unit cube (after a possible reparameterisation) requiring more evaluations, plus a sort of pulled-by-its-own-bootstrap control variate, but beating regular Monte Carlo in terms of convergence rate and practical precision (if accepting a large simulation budget from the start). A difficulty common to all (?) stratification proposals is that it does not readily applies to highly concentrated functions.

I chaired the lightning talks session, which were 3mn one-slide snapshots about some incoming posters selected by the scientific committee. While I appreciated the entry into the poster session, the more because it was quite crowded and busy, if full of interesting results, and enjoyed the slide solely made of “0.234”, I regret that not all poster presenters were not given the same opportunity (although I am unclear about which format would have permitted this) and that it did not attract more attendees as it took place in parallel with other sessions.

In a not-solely-ABC session, I appreciated Sirio Legramanti speaking on comparing different distance measures via Rademacher complexity, highlighting that some distances are not robust, incl. for instance some (all?) Wasserstein distances that are not defined for heavy tailed distributions like the Cauchy distribution. And using the mean as a summary statistic in such heavy tail settings comes as an issue, since the distance between simulated and observed means does not decrease in variance with the sample size, with the practical difficulty that the problem is hard to detect on real (misspecified) data since the true distribution behing (if any) is unknown. Would that imply that only intrinsic distances like maximum mean discrepancy or Kolmogorov-Smirnov are the only reasonable choices in misspecified settings?! While, in the ABC session, Jeremiah went back to this role of distances for generalised Bayesian inference, replacing likelihood by scoring rule, and requirement for Monte Carlo approximation (but is approximating an approximation that a terrible thing?!). I also discussed briefly with Alejandra Avalos on her use of pseudo-likelihoods in Ising models, which, while not the original model, is nonetheless a model and therefore to taken as such rather than as approximation.

I also enjoyed Gregor Kastner’s work on Bayesian prediction for a city (Milano) planning agent-based model relying on cell phone activities, which reminded me at a superficial level of a similar exploitation of cell usage in an attraction park in Singapore Steve Fienberg told me about during his last sabbatical in Paris.

In conclusion, an exciting meeting that should have stretched a whole week (or taken place in a less congenial environment!). The call for organising BayesComp 2025 is still open, by the way.


evidence estimation in finite and infinite mixture models

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , on May 20, 2022 by xi'an

Adrien Hairault (PhD student at Dauphine), Judith and I just arXived a new paper on evidence estimation for mixtures. This may sound like a well-trodden path that I have repeatedly explored in the past, but methinks that estimating the model evidence doth remain a notoriously difficult task for large sample or many component finite mixtures and even more for “infinite” mixture models corresponding to a Dirichlet process. When considering different Monte Carlo techniques advocated in the past, like Chib’s (1995) method, SMC, or bridge sampling, they exhibit a range of performances, in terms of computing time… One novel (?) approach in the paper is to write Chib’s (1995) identity for partitions rather than parameters as (a) it bypasses the label switching issue (as we already noted in Hurn et al., 2000), another one is to exploit  Geyer (1991-1994) reverse logistic regression technique in the more challenging Dirichlet mixture setting, and yet another one a sequential importance sampling solution à la  Kong et al. (1994), as also noticed by Carvalho et al. (2010). [We did not cover nested sampling as it quickly becomes onerous.]

Applications are numerous. In particular, testing for the number of components in a finite mixture model or against the fit of a finite mixture model for a given dataset has long been and still is an issue of much interest and diverging opinions, albeit yet missing a fully satisfactory resolution. Using a Bayes factor to find the right number of components K in a finite mixture model is known to provide a consistent procedure. We furthermore establish there the consistence of the Bayes factor when comparing a parametric family of finite mixtures against the nonparametric ‘strongly identifiable’ Dirichlet Process Mixture (DPM) model.

accronyms [CDT lectures]

Posted in Books, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on May 16, 2022 by xi'an

This week, I gave a short and introductory course in Warwick for the CDT (PhD) students on my perceived connections between reverse logistic regression à la Geyer and GANS, among other things. The first attempt was cancelled in 2020 due to the pandemic, the second one in 2021 was on-line and thus offered little possibilities for interactions. Preparing for this third attempt made me read more papers on some statistical analyses of GANs and WGANs, which was more satisfactory [for me] even though I could not get into the technical details…

[more than] everything you always wanted to know about marginal likelihood

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 10, 2022 by xi'an

Earlier this year, F. Llorente, L. Martino, D. Delgado, and J. Lopez-Santiago have arXived an updated version of their massive survey on marginal likelihood computation. Which I can only warmly recommend to anyone interested in the matter! Or looking for a base camp to initiate a graduate project. They break the methods into four families

  1. Deterministic approximations (e.g., Laplace approximations)
  2. Methods based on density estimation (e.g., Chib’s method, aka the candidate’s formula)
  3. Importance sampling, including sequential Monte Carlo, with a subsection connecting with MCMC
  4. Vertical representations (mostly, nested sampling)

Besides sheer computation, the survey also broaches upon issues like improper priors and alternatives to Bayes factors. The parts I would have done in more details are reversible jump MCMC and the long-lasting impact of Geyer’s reverse logistic regression (with the noise contrasting extension), even though the link with bridge sampling is briefly mentioned there. There is even a table reporting on the coverage of earlier surveys. Of course, the following postnote of the manuscript

The Christian Robert’s blog deserves a special mention , since Professor C. Robert has devoted several entries of his blog with very interesting comments regarding the marginal likelihood estimation and related topics.

does not in the least make me less objective! Some of the final recommendations

  • use of Naive Monte Carlo [simulate from the prior] should be always considered [assuming a proper prior!]
  • a multiple-try method is a good choice within the MCMC schemes
  • optimal umbrella sampling estimator is difficult and costly to implement , so its best performance may not be achieved in practice
  • adaptive importance sampling uses the posterior samples to build a suitable normalized proposal, so it benefits from localizing samples in regions of high posterior probability while preserving the properties of standard importance sampling
  • Chib’s method is a good alternative, that provide very good performances [but is not always available]
  • the success [of nested sampling] in the literature is surprising.

improving bridge samplers by GANs

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , on July 20, 2021 by xi'an

Hanwen Xing from Oxford recently posted a paper on arXiv about using GANs to improve the overlap bewtween the densities in bridge sampling. Bringing out new connections with noise contrastive estimation. The idea is to optimise a transform of one of the densities h() to bring it closer to the other density k(), using for instance normalising flows. (The call to transforms for bridge is not new, dating at least to Voter in 1985, the year I was starting my PhD!) Furthermore, using an f-divergence as a measure of functional distance allows for a reasonably straightforward update of the transform. That can be reformulated as a GAN target, which is somewhat natural in that the transform aims at confusing simulation from the transform of h and from k. This is quite an interesting proposal,  even though calculating the optimal transform is time-consuming and subjet to the curse of dimensionality. I also wonder at whether or not iterating the optimisation, one density after the other, would be bring further improvement.

%d bloggers like this: