Archive for prior projection

projection predictive input variable selection

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , on November 2, 2015 by xi'an

aikiJuho Piironen and Aki Vehtari just arXived a paper on variable selection that relates to two projection papers we wrote in the 1990’s with Costas Goutis (who died near Seattle in a diving accident on July 1996) and Jérôme Dupuis… Except that they move to the functional space of Gaussian processes. The covariance function in a Gaussian process is indeed based on a distance between observations, which are themselves defined as a vector of inputs. Some of which matter and some of which do not matter in the kernel value. When rescaling the distance with “length-scales” for all variables, one could think that non-significant variates have very small scales and hence bypass the need for variable selection but this is not the case as those coefficients react poorly to non-linearities in the variates… The paper thus builds a projective structure from a reference model involving all input variables.

“…adding some irrelevant inputs is not disastrous if the model contains a sparsifying prior structure, and therefore, one can expect to lose less by using all the inputs than by trying to differentiate between the relevant and irrelevant ones and ignoring the uncertainty related to the left-out inputs.”

While I of course appreciate this avatar to our original idea (with some borrowing from McCulloch and Rossi, 1992), the paper reminds me of some of the discussions and doubts we had about the role of the reference or super model that “anchors” the projections, as there is no reason for that reference model to be a better one. It could be that an iterative process where the selected submodel becomes the reference for the next iteration could enjoy better performances. When I first presented this work in Cagliari, in the late 1990s, one comment was that the method had no theoretical guarantee like consistency. Which is correct if the minimum distance is not evolving (how quickly?!) with the sample size n. I also remember the difficulty Jérôme and I had in figuring out a manageable forward-backward exploration of the (huge) set of acceptable subsets of variables. Random walk exploration and RJMCMC are unlikely to solve this problem.

comparison of Bayesian predictive methods for model selection

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , on April 9, 2015 by xi'an

“Dupuis and Robert (2003) proposed choosing the simplest model with enough explanatory power, for example 90%, but did not discuss the effect of this threshold for the predictive performance of the selected models. We note that, in general, the relative explanatory power is an unreliable indicator of the predictive performance of the submodel,”

Juho Piironen and Aki Vehtari arXived a survey on Bayesian model selection methods that is a sequel to the extensive survey of Vehtari and Ojanen (2012). Because most of the methods described in this survey stem from Kullback-Leibler proximity calculations, it includes some description of our posterior projection method with Costas Goutis and Jérôme Dupuis. We indeed did not consider prediction in our papers and even failed to include consistency result, as I was pointed out by my discussant in a model choice meeting in Cagliari, in … 1999! Still, I remain fond of the notion of defining a prior on the embedding model and of deducing priors on the parameters of the submodels by Kullback-Leibler projections. It obviously relies on the notion that the embedding model is “true” and that the submodels are only approximations. In the simulation experiments included in this survey, the projection method “performs best in terms of the predictive ability” (p.15) and “is much less vulnerable to the selection induced bias” (p.16).

Reading the other parts of the survey, I also came to the perspective that model averaging makes much more sense than model choice in predictive terms. Sounds obvious stated that way but it took me a while to come to this conclusion. Now, with our mixture representation, model averaging also comes as a natural consequence of the modelling, a point presumably not stressed enough in the current version of the paper. On the other hand, the MAP model now strikes me as artificial and linked to a very rudimentary loss function. A loss that does not account for the final purpose(s) of the model. And does not connect to the “all models are wrong” theorem.

projective covariate selection

Posted in Mountains, pictures, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on October 28, 2014 by xi'an

While I was in Warwick, Dan Simpson [newly arrived from Norway on a postdoc position] mentioned to me he had attended a talk by Aki Vehtari in Norway where my early work with Jérôme Dupuis on projective priors was used. He gave me the link to this paper by Peltola, Havulinna, Salomaa and Vehtari that indeed refers to the idea that a prior on a given Euclidean space defines priors by projections on all subspaces, despite the zero measure of all those subspaces. (This notion first appeared in a joint paper with my friend Costas Goutis, who alas died in a diving accident a few months later.) The projection further allowed for a simple expression of the Kullback-Leibler deviance between the corresponding models and for a Pythagorean theorem on the additivity of the deviances between embedded models. The weakest spot of this approach of ours was, in my opinion and unsurprisingly, about deciding when a submodel was too far from the full model. The lack of explanatory power introduced therein had no absolute scale and later discussions led me to think that the bound should depend on the sample size to ensure consistency. (The recent paper by Nott and Leng that was expanding on this projection has now appeared in CSDA.)

“Specifically, the models with subsets of covariates are found by maximizing the similarity of their predictions to this reference as proposed by Dupuis and Robert [12]. Notably, this approach does not require specifying priors for the submodels and one can instead focus on building a good reference model. Dupuis and Robert (2003) suggest choosing the size of the covariate subset based on an acceptable loss of explanatory power compared to the reference model. We examine using cross-validation based estimates of predictive performance as an alternative.” T. Peltola et al.

The paper also connects with the Bayesian Lasso literature, concluding on the horseshoe prior being more informative than the Laplace prior. It applies the selection approach to identify biomarkers with predictive performances in a study of diabetic patients. The authors rank model according to their (log) predictive density at the observed data, using cross-validation to avoid exploiting the data twice. On the MCMC front, the paper implements the NUTS version of HMC with STAN.

Computing evidence

Posted in Books, R, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , , , on November 29, 2010 by xi'an

The book Random effects and latent variable model selection, edited by David Dunson in 2008 as a Springer Lecture Note. contains several chapters dealing with evidence approximation in mixed effect models. (Incidentally, I would be interested in the story behind the  Lecture Note as I found no explanation in the backcover or in the preface. Some chapters but not all refer to a SAMSI workshop on model uncertainty…) The final chapter written by Joyee Ghosh and David Dunson (similar to a corresponding paper in JCGS) contains in particular the interesting identity that the Bayes factor opposing model h to model h-1 can be unbiasedly approximated by (the average of the terms)



  • \mathfrak{M} is the model index,
  • the \theta_{i,h}‘s are simulated from the posterior under model h,
  • the model \mathfrak{M}=h-1 only considers the h-1 first components of \theta_{i,h},
  • the prior under model h-1 is the projection of the prior under model h. (Note that this marginalisation is not the projection used in Bayesian Core.)

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