Archive for Providence

stratified MCMC

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on December 3, 2020 by xi'an

When working last week with a student, we came across [the slides of a talk at ICERM by Brian van Koten about] a stratified MCMC method whose core idea is to solve a eigenvector equation z’=z’F associated with the masses of “partition” functions Ψ evaluated at the target. (The arXived paper is also available since 2017 but I did not check it in more details.)Although the “partition” functions need to overlap for the matrix not to be diagonal (actually the only case that does not work is when these functions are truly indicator functions). As in other forms of stratified sampling, the practical difficulty is in picking the functions Ψ so that the evaluation of the terms of the matrix F is not overly impacted by the Monte Carlo error. If spending too much time in estimating these terms, there is not a clear gain in switching to stratified sampling, which may be why it is not particularly developed in the MCMC literature….

As an interesting aside, the illustration in this talk comes from the Mexican stamp thickness data I also used in my earlier mixture papers, concerning the 1872 Hidalgo issue that was printed on different qualities of paper. This makes the number k of components somewhat uncertain, although k=3 is sometimes used as a default. Hence a parameter and simulation space of dimension 8, even though the method is used toward approximating the marginal posteriors on the weights λ¹ and λ².

red dawn

Posted in pictures, Running with tags , , , , on December 7, 2012 by xi'an

Blackstone park, Providence, November 28, 2012

estimating the measure and hence the constant

Posted in pictures, Running, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , on December 6, 2012 by xi'an

Dawn in Providence, Nov. 30, 2012As mentioned on my post about the final day of the ICERM workshop, Xiao-Li Meng addresses this issue of “estimating the constant” in his talk. It is even his central theme. Here are his (2011) slides as he sent them to me (with permission to post them!):

He therefore points out in slide #5 why the likelihood cannot be expressed in terms of the normalising constant because this is not a free parameter. Right! His explanation for the approximation of the unknown constant is then to replace the known but intractable dominating measure—in the sense that it cannot compute the integral—with a discrete (or non-parametric) measure supported by the sample. Because the measure is defined up to a constant, this leads to sample weights being proportional to the inverse density. Of course, this representation of the problem is open to criticism: why focus only on measures supported by the sample? The fact that it is the MLE is used as an argument in Xiao-Li’s talk, but this can alternatively be seen as a drawback: I remember reviewing Dankmar Böhning’s Computer-Assisted Analysis of Mixtures and being horrified when discovering this feature! I am currently more agnostic since this appears as an alternative version of empirical likelihood. There are still questions about the measure estimation principle: for instance, when handling several samples from several distributions, why should they all contribute to a single estimate of μ rather than to a product of measures? (Maybe because their models are all dominated by the same measure μ.) Now, getting back to my earlier remark, and as a possible answer to Larry’s quesiton, there could well be a Bayesian version of the above, avoiding the rough empirical likelihood via Gaussian or Drichlet process prior modelling.

Providence skyline (#2)

Posted in pictures, Travel with tags , on December 5, 2012 by xi'an

Wesminster St., Providence, Nov. 29, 2012

Providence skyline

Posted in pictures, Travel with tags , on December 3, 2012 by xi'an

Westminster St., Providence, RI, Nov. 30, 2012