## Archive for R.A. Fisher

## baseless!

Posted in Books, Statistics with tags 1922, Bayes theorem, epistemic probability, frequency properties, George Boole, history of statistics, inverse probability, normalised maximum likelihood, Pierre Simon Laplace, R.A. Fisher, Siméon Poisson on July 13, 2021 by xi'an## Fisher, Bayes, and predictive Bayesian inference [seminar]

Posted in Statistics with tags fiducial inference, Foundations of Probability, inverse probability, Jerzy Neyman, Karl Pearson, R.A. Fisher, Rutgers University, seminar, Thomas Bayes, webinar on April 4, 2021 by xi'an**A**n interesting Foundations of Probability seminar at Rutgers University this Monday, at 4:30ET, 8:30GMT, by Sandy Zabell (the password is Angelina’s birthdate):

R. A. Fisher is usually perceived to have been a staunch critic of the Bayesian approach to statistics, yet his last book (Statistical Methods and Scientific Inference, 1956) is much closer in spirit to the Bayesian approach than the frequentist theories of Neyman and Pearson. This mismatch between perception and reality is best understood as an evolution in Fisher’s views over the course of his life. In my talk I will discuss Fisher’s initial and harsh criticism of “inverse probability”, his subsequent advocacy of fiducial inference starting in 1930, and his admiration for Bayes expressed in his 1956 book. Several of the examples Fisher discusses there are best understood when viewed against the backdrop of earlier controversies and antagonisms.

## hard birthday problem

Posted in Books, Kids, R, Statistics with tags birthday problem, cross validated, EM algorithm, mathematical puzzle, Poisson approximation, R.A. Fisher, SAS, strong birthday problem, William Feller, Wordpress on February 4, 2021 by xi'anFrom an X validated question, found that WordPress now allows for direct link to pdf documents, like the above paper by my old friend Anirban Das Gupta! The question is about estimating a number M of individuals with N distinct birth dates over a year of T days. After looking around I could not find a simpler representation of the probability for N=r other than (1) in my answer,

borrowed from a paper by Fisher et al. (Another Fisher!) Checking Feller leads to the probability (p.102)

which fits rather nicely simulation frequencies, as shown using

apply(!apply(matrix(sample(1:Nb,T*M,rep=TRUE),T,M),1,duplicated),2,sum)

Further, Feller (1970, pp.103-104) justifies an asymptotic Poisson approximation with parameter$

from which an estimate of $M$ can be derived. With the birthday problem as illustration (pp.105-106)!

It may be that a completion from N to (R¹,R²,…) where the components are the number of days with one birthdate, two birthdates, &tc. could help design an EM algorithm that would remove the summation in (1) but I did not spend more time on the problem (than finding a SAS approximation to the probability!).

## Don Fraser (1925-2020)

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags asymptotics, Canada, David Cox, Don Fraser, fiducial inference, fiducial statistics, John Nelder, Nancy Reid, O'Bayes 2019, obituary, Ontario, R.A. Fisher, Statistical Science, University of Toronto, University of Warwick, University of Waterloo on December 24, 2020 by xi'an**I** just received the very sad news that Don Fraser, emeritus professor of statistics at the University of Toronto, passed away this Monday, 21 December 2020. He was a giant of the field, with a unique ability for abstract modelling and he certainly pushed fiducial statistics much further than Fisher ever did. He also developed a theory of structural inference that came close to objective Bayesian statistics, although he remained quite critical of the Bayesian approach (always in a most gentle manner, as he was a very nice man!). And most significantly contributed to high order asymptotics, to the critical analysis of ancilarity and sufficiency principles, and more beyond. (Statistical Science published a conversation with Don, in 2004, providing more personal views on his career till then.) I met with Don and Nancy rather regularly over the years, as they often attended and talked at (objective) Bayesian meetings, from the 1999 edition in Granada, to the last one in Warwick in 2019. I also remember a most enjoyable barbecue together, along with Ivar Ekeland and his family, during JSM 2018, on Jericho Park Beach, with a magnificent sunset over the Burrard Inlet. Farewell, Don!

## down with Galton (and Pearson and Fisher…)

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags Annals of Eugenics, Biometrika, eugenics, Francis Galton, Genetics, history of statistics, honours, Karl Pearson, London, physiognomy, population genetics, R.A. Fisher, racism, Stephen Stigler, UCL, University College London on July 22, 2019 by xi'an

**I**n the last issue of Significance, which I read in Warwick prior to the conference, there is a most interesting article on Galton’s eugenics, his heritage at University College London (UCL), and the overall trouble with honouring prominent figures of the past with memorials like named building or lectures… The starting point of this debate is a protest from some UCL students and faculty about UCL having a lecture room named after the late Francis Galton who was a professor there. Who further donated at his death most of his fortune to the university towards creating a professorship in eugenics. The protests are about Galton’s involvement in the eugenics movement of the late 18th and early 19th century. As well as professing racist opinions.

My first reaction after reading about these protests was *why not?!* Named places or lectures, as well as statues and other memorials, have a limited utility, especially when the named person is long dead and they certainly do not contribute in making a scientific theory [associated with the said individual] more appealing or more valid. And since “humans are [only] humans”, to quote Stephen Stigler speaking in this article, it is unrealistic to expect great scientists to be perfect, the more if one multiplies the codes for ethical or acceptable behaviours across ages and cultures. It is also more rational to use amphitheater MS.02 and lecture room AC.18 rather than associate them with one name chosen out of many alumni’s or former professors’.

Predictably, another reaction of mine was *why bother?!,* as removing Galton’s name from the items it is attached to is highly unlikely to change current views on eugenism or racism. On the opposite, it seems to detract from opposing the present versions of these ideologies. As some recent proposals linking genes and some form of academic success. Another of my (multiple) reactions was that as stated in the article these views of Galton’s reflected upon the views and prejudices of the time, when the notions of races and inequalities between races (as well as genders and social classes) were almost universally accepted, including in scientific publications like the proceedings of the Royal Society and Nature. When Karl Pearson launched the Annals of Eugenics in 1925 (after he started Biometrika) with the very purpose of establishing a scientific basis for eugenics. (An editorship that Ronald Fisher would later take over, along with his views on the differences between races, believing that “human groups differ profoundly in their innate capacity for intellectual and emotional development”.) Starting from these prejudiced views, Galton set up a scientific and statistical approach to support them, by accumulating data and possibly modifying some of these views. But without much empathy for the consequences, as shown in this terrible quote I found when looking for more material:

“I should feel but little compassion if I saw all the Damaras in the hand of a slave-owner, for they could hardly become more wretched than they are now…”

As it happens, my first exposure to Galton was in my first probability course at ENSAE when a terrific professor was peppering his lectures with historical anecdotes and used to mention Galton’s data-gathering trip to Namibia, literally measure local inhabitants towards his physiognomical views , also reflected in the above attempt of his to superpose photographs to achieve the “ideal” thief…