## Archive for random generator

## D65536 [xkcd]

Posted in Books, Kids with tags pseudo-random generator, quantum computer, random generator, xkcd on June 16, 2022 by xi'an## A survey of the [60′s] Monte Carlo methods [2]

Posted in Books, R, Statistics, University life with tags Fréchet, low discrepancy sequences, Monte Carlo methods, pseudo-random generator, quasi-random sequences, random generator on May 18, 2011 by xi'an**T**he 24 questions asked by John Halton in the conclusion of his 1970 survey are

- Can we obtain a theory of convergence for random variables taking values in Fréchet spaces?
- Can the study of Monte Carlo estimates in separable Fréchet spaces give a theory of global approximation?
- When sampling functions, what constitutes a representative sample of function values?
- Can one apply Monte Carlo to pattern recognition?
- Relate Monte Carlo theory to the theory of random equations.
- What can be said about quasi-Monte Carlo estimates for finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional integrals?
- Obtain expression, asymptotic forms or upper bounds for L² and L
^{∞}discrepancies of quasirandom sequences. - How should one improve quasirandom sequences?
- How to interpret the results of statistical tests applied to pseudo- or quasirandom sequences?
- Can we develop a meaningful statistical theory of quasi-Monte Carlo estimates?
- Can existing Monte Carlo techniques be improved and applied to new classes of problems?
- Can the design of Monte Carlo estimators be made more systematic?
- How can the idea of sequential Monte Carlo be extended?
- Can sampling with signed probabilities be made practical?
- What is the best allocation effort in obtaining zeroth- and first-level estimators in algebraic problems?
- Examine the Monte Carlo analogues of the various matrix iterative schemes.
- Develop the schemes of grid refinement in continuous problems.
- Develop new Monte Carlo eigenvectors and eigenvalue techniques.
- Develop fast, reliable true canonical random generators.
- How is the output of a true random generator to be tested?
- Develop fast, efficient methods for generating arbitrary random generators.
- Can we really have useful general purpose pseudorandom sequences.
- What is the effect of the discreteness of digital computers on Monte Carlo calculations?
- Is there a way to estimate the accuracy of Monte Carlo estimates?

## Computational Statistics

Posted in Books, R, Statistics with tags book review, bootstrap, BUGS, C, computational statistics, computer error, Fortran, graphical models, jackknife, James Gentle, Markov chain, MCMC, nonparametric probability density estimation, programming, R, random generator, simulation, Springer-Verlag, statistical computing on May 10, 2010 by xi'an

Do not resort to Monte Carlo methods unnecessarily.

**W**hen I received this 2009 Springer-Verlag book, ** Computational Statistics**, by James Gentle a while ago, I briefly took a look at the table of contents and decided to have a better look later… Now that I have gone through the whole book, I can write a short review on its scope and contents (to be submitted). Despite its title, the book aims at covering

*both*computational statistics and statistical computing. (With 752 pages at his disposal, Gentle can afford to do

*both*indeed!)

**T**he book ** Computational Statistics** is separated into four parts:

- Part I:
**Mathematical and statistical preliminaries**. - Part II:
**Statistical Computing**(Computer storage and arithmetic.- Algorithms and programming.- Approximation of functions and numerical quadrature.- Numerical linear algebra.- Solution of nonlinear equations and optimization.- Generation of random numbers.) - Part III:
**Methods of Computational Statistics**(Graphical methods in computational statistics.- Tools for identification of structure in data.- Estimation of functions.- Monte Carlo methods for statistical inference.- Data randomization, partitioning, and augmentation.- Bootstrap methods.) - Part IV:
**Exploring Data Density and Relationship**(Estimation of probability density functions using parametric models.- Nonparametric estimation of probability density functions.- Statistical learning and data mining.- Statistical models of dependencies.)

Computational inference, together with exact inference and asymptotic inference, is an important component of statistical methods.

**T**he first part of ** Computational Statistics **is indeed a preliminary containing essentials of math and probability and statistics. A reader unfamiliar with too many topics within this chapter should first consider improving his or her background in the corresponding area! This is a rather large chapter, with 82 pages, and it should not be extremely useful to readers, except to signal deficiencies in their background, as noted above. Given this purpose, I am not certain the selected exercises of this chapter are necessary (especially when considering that some involve tools introduced much later in the book).

The form of a mathematical expression and the way the expression should be evaluated in actual practice may be quite different .

**T**he second part of ** Computational Statistics **is truly about computing, meaning the theory of computation, i.e. of using computers for numerical approximation, with discussions about the representation of numbers in computers, approximation errors, and of course random number generators. While I judge George Fishman’s

*to provide a deeper and more complete coverage of those topics, I appreciate the need for reminding our students of those hardware subtleties as they often seem unaware of them, despite their advanced computer skills. This second part is thus a crash course of 250 pages on numerical methods (like function approximations by basis functions and …) and on random generators, i.e. cover the same ground as Gentle’s earlier books,*

**Monte Carlo***and*

**Random Number Generation and Monte Carlo Methods****, while the more recent**

*Numerical Linear Algebra for Applications in Statistics***looks very much like a shorter entry on the same topics as those of Parts III IV of**

*Elements of Computational Statistics***. This part could certainly sustain a whole semester undergraduate course while only advanced graduate students could be expected to gain from a self-study of those topics. It is nonetheless the most coherent and attractive part of the book. It constitutes a must-read for all students and researchers engaging into any kind of serious programming. Obviously, some notions are introduced a bit too superficially, given the scope of this section (as for instance Monte Carlo methods, in particular MCMC techniques that are introduced in less than six pages), but I came to realise this is the point of the book, which provides an entry into “all” necessary topics, along with links to the relevant literature (if missing**

*Computational Statistics**!). I however deplore that the important issue of Monte Carlo experiments, whose construction is often a hardship for students, is postponed till the 100 page long appendix. (I suspect that*

**Monte Carlo Statistical Methods***students do not read appendices*is another of those folk theorems!)

Monte Carlo methods differ from other methods of numerical analysis in yielding anestimaterather than anapproximation.

**T**he third and fourth parts of the book cover methods of computational statistics, including Monte Carlo methods, randomization and cross validation, the bootstrap, probability density estimation, and statistical learning. Unfortunately, I find the level of Part III to be quite uneven, where all chapters are short and rather superficial because they try to be all-encompassing. (For instance, Chapter 8 includes two pages on the RGB colour coding.) Part IV does a better job of presenting machine learning techniques, if not with the thoroughness of Hastie et al.’s ** The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction**… It seems to me that the relevant sections of Part III would have fitted better where they belong in Part IV. For instance, Chapter 10 on estimation of functions only covers the evaluation of estimators of functions, postponing the construction of those estimators till Chapter 15. Jackknife is introduced on its own in Chapter 12 (not that I find this introduction ultimately necessary) without the bootstrap covered in eight pages in Chapter 13 (bootstrap for non-iid data is dismissed rather quickly, given the current research in the area). The first chapter of Part IV covers some (non-Bayesian) estimation approaches for parametric families, but I find this chapter somehow superfluous as it does not belong to the computational statistic domain (except as an

*approximation*method, as stressed in Section 14.4). While Chapter 16 is a valuable entry on clustering and data-analysis tools like PCA, the final section on high dimensions feels out of context (and mentioning the curse of dimensionality only that close to the end of the book does not seem appropriate). Chapter 17 on dependent data is missing the rich literature on graphical models and their use in the determination of dependence structures.

Programming is the best way to learn programming (read that again) .

**I**n conclusion, ** Computational Statistics** is a very diverse book that can be used at several levels as textbook, as well as a reference for researchers (even if as an entry towards further and deeper references). The book is well-written, in a lively and personal style. (I however object to the reduction of the notion of

*Markov chains*to discrete state-spaces!) There is no requirement for a specific programming language, although R is introduced in a somewhat dismissive way (R

*most serious flaw is usually lack of robustness*since

*some [packages] are not of high-quality*) and some exercises start with

*Design and write either a C or a Fortran subroutine*.

**BUGS**is not mentioned at all. The appendices of

**also contain the solutions to some exercises, even though the level of detail is highly variable, from one word (“1”) to one page (see, e.g., Exercise 11.4). The 20 page list of references is preceded by a few pages on available journals and webpages, which could get obsolete rather quickly. Despite the reservations raised above about some parts of**

*Computational Statistics***that would benefit from a deeper coverage, I think this book is a reference book that should appear in the shortlist of any computational statistics/statistical computing graduate course as well as on the shelves of any researcher supporting his or her statistical practice with a significant dose of computing backup.**

*Computational Statistics*## Big’MC seminar

Posted in R, Statistics, University life with tags Big' MC, language history, Monte Carlo methods, phylogenetic model, random generator on January 30, 2010 by xi'an**T**wo very interesting talks at the Big’ MC seminar on Thursday:

— Phylogenetic models and MCMC methods for the reconstruction of language history by Robin Ryder

— Uniform and non-uniform random generators by Régis Lebrun

which are both on topics close to my interest, evolution of languages (I’ll be a philologist in another life!) and uniform random generators.