Another terrible graph from Nature… With vertical bars meaning nothing. Nothing more than the list of three values and both confidence intervals. But the associated article is quite interesting in investigating the difficulties in assessing the number of deaths due to COVID-19, when official death statistics are (almost) as shaky as the official COVID-19 deaths. Even in countries with sound mortality statistics and trustworthy official statistics institutes. This article opposes prediction models run by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation and The Economist. The later being a machine-learning prediction procedure based on a large number of covariates. Without looking under the hood, it is unclear to me how poor entries across the array of covariates can be corrected to return a meaningful prediction. It is also striking that the model predicts much less excess deaths than those due to COVID-19 in a developed country like Japan. Survey methods are briefly mentioned at the end of the article, with interesting attempts to use satellite images of burial grounds, but no further techniques like capture-recapture or record linkage and entity resolution.

## Archive for satellite

## how to count excess deaths?

Posted in Books, Kids, pictures, Statistics with tags bad graph, capture-recapture, COVID-19, death certificate, entity resolution, excess mortality, image analysis, infographics, INSEE, Japan, Jeune economist, Nature, official statistics, record linkage, satellite, The Economist on February 17, 2022 by xi'an## cosmos behind bars [Technológia börtönében]

Posted in Books, pictures, Travel with tags cosmos, Hungary, light pollution, Nature, Rafael Schmall, satellite, Technológia börtönében on December 14, 2020 by xi'an## marginal likelihoods from MCMC

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics, University life with tags ABC, arXiv, Bayesian Methods in Cosmology, curse of dimensionality, evidence, INLA, k-nearest neighbour, marginal likelihood, nested sampling, Planck experiment, San Antonio, satellite on April 26, 2017 by xi'an**A** new arXiv entry on ways to approximate marginal likelihoods based on MCMC output, by astronomers (apparently). With an application to the 2015 Planck satellite analysis of cosmic microwave background radiation data, which reminded me of our joint work with the cosmologists of the Paris Institut d’Astrophysique ten years ago. In the literature review, the authors miss several surveys on the approximation of those marginals, including our San Antonio chapter, on Bayes factors approximations, but mention our ABC survey somewhat inappropriately since it is not advocating the use of ABC for such a purpose. (They mention as well variational Bayes approximations, INLA, powered likelihoods, if not nested sampling.)

The proposal of this paper is to identify the marginal *m* [actually denoted *a* there] as the normalising constant of an unnormalised posterior density. And to do so the authors estimate the posterior by a non-parametric approach, namely a k-nearest-neighbour estimate. With the additional twist of producing a sort of Bayesian posterior on the constant *m*. [And the unusual notion of number density, used for the unnormalised posterior.] The Bayesian estimation of m relies on a Poisson sampling assumption on the k-nearest neighbour distribution. (Sort of, since k is actually fixed, not random.)

If the above sounds confusing and imprecise it is because I am myself rather mystified by the whole approach and find it difficult to see the point in this alternative. The Bayesian numerics does not seem to have other purposes than producing a MAP estimate. And using a non-parametric density estimate opens a Pandora box of difficulties, the most obvious one being the curse of dimension(ality). This reminded me of the commented paper of Delyon and Portier where they achieve super-efficient convergence when using a kernel estimator, but with a considerable cost and a similar sensitivity to dimension.