Archive for scale

new typos in Monte Carlo Statistical Methods

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , on December 7, 2011 by xi'an

Thanks to Jay Bartroff for pointing out those typos after teaching from Monte Carlo Statistical Methods:

  • On page 52, the gamma Ga(α, β) distribution uses β as a rate parameter while in other places it is a scale parameter, see, e.g. eqn (2.2) [correct, I must say the parameterisation of the gamma distribution is a pain and, while we tried to homogenise the notation with the second parameter being the rate, there are places like this where either the rate convention (as in the exponential distribution) or the scale convention (as in the generation) is the natural one…]
  • Still on page 52, in Example 2.20, truncated normals are said to be discussed after Example 1.5, but they’re not. [There is a mention made of constrained parameters right after but this is rather cryptic!]
  • On page 53, the ratio f/gα following the second displayed eqn is missing some terms [or, rather, the equality sign should be a proportional sign]
  • Still on page 53, in eqn (2.11), the whole expression, rather than the square root, should be divided by 2 [yes, surprising typo given that it was derived correctly in the original paper!]
  • On page 92, the exact constraint is that supp(g) actually needs only contain the intersection of supp(f) and supp(h), such as when approximating tail probabilities [correct if the importance sampling method is only used for a single function h, else the condition stands as is]
  • On page 94, fY does not need that integral in the denominator [correct, we already corrected for the truncation by subtracting 4.5 in the exponential]
  • On page 114, Problem 3.22, ωi is missing a factor of 1/n [correct]
  • On page 218, in Example 6.24, P00=0 [indeed, our remark that Pxx>0 should start with x=1. Note that this does not change the aperiodicity, though]
  • On page 282, the log α after the 2nd displayed equation should be eα [correct, this was pointed out in a previous list of typos, but clearly not corrected in the latest printing!]
  • On page 282, in the 5th displayed equation there are missing factors π(α’|b)/π(α0|b) in rejection probability [actually, no, because, those terms being both proposals and priors, they cancel in the ratio. We could add a sentence to this effect to explain why, though.]
  • On page 634, the reference page for exponential distribution is mistakenly given as 99 [wow, very thorough reading! There is an exponential distribution involved on page 99 but I agree this is not the relevant page…]

The confusing gamma parameter

Posted in Books, R, Statistics with tags , , , , on May 13, 2011 by xi'an

Boris from Ottawa sent me this email about Introducing Monte Carlo Methods with R:

As I went through the exercises and examples, I believe I found a typo in exercise 6.4 on page 176 that is not in the list of typos posted on  your website.  For simulation of Gamma(a,1) random variables with  candidate distribution Gamma([a],b), the optimal choice of b seems to be  a/[a] rather than [a]/a as suggested in the book.  Since the ratio dgamma(x,a,1)/dgamma(x,a,[a]/a) is unbounded, simulations with candidate distribution Gamma([a],[a]/a) yields poor approximation to the target distribution.

The problem with this exercise and the gamma distribution


in general is that it can be parameterised in terms of the scale or in terms of the rate, as recognised by the R [d/p/q/r]gamma functions:

GammaDist                package:stats                 R Documentation

The Gamma Distribution


Density, distribution function, quantile function and random
generation for the Gamma distribution with parameters ‘shape’ and


dgamma(x, shape, rate = 1, scale = 1/rate, log = FALSE)
pgamma(q, shape, rate = 1, scale = 1/rate, lower.tail = TRUE,
log.p = FALSE)
qgamma(p, shape, rate = 1, scale = 1/rate, lower.tail = TRUE,
log.p = FALSE)
rgamma(n, shape, rate = 1, scale = 1/rate)


x, q: vector of quantiles.

p: vector of probabilities.

n: number of observations. If ‘length(n) > 1’, the length is
taken to be the number required.

rate: an alternative way to specify the scale.

shape, scale: shape and scale parameters.  Must be positive, ‘scale’

Thus, Boris understood b to be the scale parameter, while we meant b to be the rate parameter, meaning we are in fine in agreement about the solution! The deeper question is, why use a duplicated and hence confusing parameterisation?! The reason for doing so is that, while the scale is the natural parameter, the rate has the nicer (Bayesian) property of enjoying a gamma conjugate prior (rather than an inverse gamma conjugate prior). This is why the gamma distribution is implicitly calibrated by the rate, instead of the scale, in most of the Bayesian literature.


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