**S**aifuddin Syed, Vittorio Romaniello, Trevor Campbell, and Alexandre Bouchard-Côté, whom I met and discussed with on my “last” trip to UBC, on December 2019, just arXived a paper on parallel tempering (PT), making the choice of tempering path an optimisation problem. They address the touchy issue of designing a sequence of tempered targets when the starting distribution π⁰, eg the prior, and the final distribution π¹, eg the posterior, are hugely different, eg almost singular.

“…theoretical analysis of reversible variants of PT has shown that adding too manyintermediate chains can actually deteriorate performance (…) [while] on non reversible regime adding more chains is guaranteed to improve performances.”

The above applies to geometric combinations of π⁰ and π¹. Which “suffers from an arbitrarily suboptimal global communication barrier“, according to the authors (although the counterexample is not completely convincing since π⁰ and π¹ share the same variance). They propose a more non-linear form of tempering with constraints on the dependence of the powers on the temperature t∈(0,1). Defining the global communication barrier as an average over temperatures of the rejection rate, the path characteristics (e.g., the coefficients of a spline function) can then be optimised in terms of this objective. And the temperature schedule is derived from the fact that the non-asymptotic round trip rate is maximized when the rejection rates are all equal. (As a side item, the technique exposed in the earlier tempering paper by Syed et al. was recently exploited for a ~~night~~ high resolution imaging of a black hole from the M87 galaxy.)