Archive for Université Paris-La Sorbonne

statistical analysis of GANs

Posted in Books, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , on May 24, 2021 by xi'an

My friend Gérard Biau and his coauthors have published a paper in the Annals of Statistics last year on the theoretical [statistical] analysis of GANs, which I had missed and recently read with a definitive interest in the issues. (With no image example!)

If the discriminator is unrestricted the unique optimal solution is the Bayes posterior probability

\dfrac{p^\star(x)}{p^\star(x)+p_\theta(x)}

when the model density is everywhere positive. And the optimal parameter θ corresponds to the closest model in terms of Kullback-Leibler divergence. The pseudo-true value of the parameter. This is however the ideal situation, while in practice D is restricted to a parametric family. In this case, if the family is wide enough to approximate the ideal discriminator in the sup norm, with error of order ε, and if the parameter space Θ is compact, the optimal parameter found under the restricted family approximates the pseudo-true value in the sense of the GAN loss, at the order ε². With a stronger assumption on the family ability to approximate any discriminator, the same property holds for the empirical version (and in expectation). (As an aside, the figure illustrating this property confusedly uses an histogramesque rectangle to indicate the expectation of the discriminator loss!) And both parameter (θ and α) estimators converge to the optimal ones with the sample size. An interesting foray from statisticians in a method whose statistical properties are rarely if ever investigated. Missing a comparison with alternative approaches, like MLE, though.

round-table on Bayes[ian[ism]]

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 7, 2017 by xi'an

In a [sort of] coincidence, shortly after writing my review on Le bayésianisme aujourd’hui, I got invited by the book editor, Isabelle Drouet, to take part in a round-table on Bayesianism in La Sorbonne. Which constituted the first seminar in the monthly series of the séminaire “Probabilités, Décision, Incertitude”. Invitation that I accepted and honoured by taking place in this public debate (if not dispute) on all [or most] things Bayes. Along with Paul Egré (CNRS, Institut Jean Nicod) and Pascal Pernot (CNRS, Laboratoire de chimie physique). And without a neuroscientist, who could not or would not attend.

While nothing earthshaking came out of the seminar, and certainly not from me!, it was interesting to hear of the perspectives of my philosophy+psychology and chemistry colleagues, the former explaining his path from classical to Bayesian testing—while mentioning trying to read the book Statistical rethinking reviewed a few months ago—and the later the difficulty to teach both colleagues and students the need for an assessment of uncertainty in measurements. And alluding to GUM, developed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures I visited last year. I tried to present my relativity viewpoints on the [relative] nature of the prior, to avoid the usual morass of debates on the nature and subjectivity of the prior, tried to explain Bayesian posteriors via ABC, mentioned examples from The Theorem that Would not Die, yet untranslated into French, and expressed reserves about the glorious future of Bayesian statistics as we know it. This seminar was fairly enjoyable, with none of the stress induced by the constraints of a radio-show. Just too bad it did not attract a wider audience!

le bayésianisme aujourd’hui [book review]

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 4, 2017 by xi'an

It is quite rare to see a book published in French about Bayesian statistics and even rarer to find one that connects philosophy of science, foundations of probability, statistics, and applications in neurosciences and artificial intelligence. Le bayésianisme aujourd’hui (Bayesianism today) was edited by Isabelle Drouet, a Reader in Philosophy at La Sorbonne. And includes a chapter of mine on the basics of Bayesian inference (à la Bayesian Choice), written in French like the rest of the book.

The title of the book is rather surprising (to me) as I had never heard the term Bayesianism mentioned before. As shown by this link, the term apparently exists. (Even though I dislike the sound of it!) The notion is one of a probabilistic structure of knowledge and learning, à la Poincaré. As described in the beginning of the book. But I fear the arguments minimising the subjectivity of the Bayesian approach should not be advanced, following my new stance on the relativity of probabilistic statements, if only because they are defensive and open the path all too easily to counterarguments. Similarly, the argument according to which the “Big Data” era makesp the impact of the prior negligible and paradoxically justifies the use of Bayesian methods is limited to the case of little Big Data, i.e., when the observations are more or less iid with a limited number of parameters. Not when the number of parameters explodes. Another set of arguments that I find both more modern and compelling [for being modern is not necessarily a plus!] is the ease with which the Bayesian framework allows for integrative and cooperative learning. Along with its ultimate modularity, since each component of the learning mechanism can be extracted and replaced with an alternative. Continue reading

the lamest recommendation letter ever…

Posted in pictures, University life with tags , on July 5, 2012 by xi'an

Today, I was looking at the numerous application forms related to my Statistical Information Processing (TSI) Master in Paris-Dauphine and saw a recurring recommendation letter from a professor of econometrics in Paris-La Sorbonne (I think) for his students: it mentioned that everyone in the class had had poor grades (the average was 4 out of 20!) but that the student recommended by the letter was quite good and bright… What’s the point of giving exams which grades are concentrated in the lower tail and of writing such useless letters to compound the first error?! In the end, I forgot about both the grade and the letter.