Archive for xkcd

Fermat’s Riddle

Posted in Books, Kids, R with tags , , , , , , , , , , on October 16, 2020 by xi'an

·A Fermat-like riddle from the Riddler (with enough room to code on the margin)

An  arbitrary positive integer N is to be written as a difference of two distinct positive integers. What are the impossible cases and else can you provide a list of all distinct representations?

Since the problem amounts to finding a>b>0 such that

N=a^2-b^2=(a-b)(a+b)

both (a+b) and (a-b) are products of some of the prime factors in the decomposition of N and both terms must have the same parity for the average a to be an integer. This eliminates decompositions with a single prime factor 2 (and N=1). For other cases, the following R code (which I could not deposit on tio.run because of the packages R.utils!) returns a list

library(R.utils)
library(numbers)
bitz<-function(i,m) #int2bits
  c(rev(as.binary(i)),rep(0,m))[1:m]
ridl=function(n){
a=primeFactors(n)
if((n==1)|(sum(a==2)==1)){
  print("impossible")}else{
  m=length(a);g=NULL
  for(i in 1:2^m){
    b=bitz(i,m)
    if(((d<-prod(a[!!b]))%%2==(e<-prod(a[!b]))%%2)&(d<e))
      g=rbind(g,c(k<-(e+d)/2,l<-(e-d)/2))}
  return(g[!duplicated(g[,1]-g[,2]),])}}

For instance,

> ridl(1456)
     [,1] [,2]
[1,]  365  363
[2,]  184  180
[3,]   95   87
[4,]   59   45
[5,]   40   12
[6,]   41   15

Checking for the most prolific N, up to 10⁶, I found that N=6720=2⁶·3·5·7 produces 20 different decompositions. And that N=887,040=2⁸·3²·5·7·11 leads to 84 distinct differences of squares.

babbage in, babbage out?!

Posted in Books, Kids, Statistics with tags , , , , , , on May 25, 2020 by xi'an

When checking for the origin of “garbage in, garbage out” on Wikipedia, I came upon this citation from Charles Babbage:

“On two occasions I have been asked, “Pray, Mr. Babbage, if you put into the machine wrong figures, will the right answers come out?” … I am not able rightly to apprehend the kind of confusion of ideas that could provoke such a question.”

following earlier quotes from him on this ‘Og.

at last the type IX error

Posted in Statistics with tags , , , , , , , on May 11, 2020 by xi'an

ideal COVID¹⁹ chart

Posted in Statistics with tags , , , on April 16, 2020 by xi'an

ABC World seminar

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 4, 2020 by xi'an

With most of the World being more or less confined at home, conferences cancelled one after the other, including ABC in Grenoble!, we are launching a fortnightly webinar on approximation Bayesian computation, methods, and inference. The idea is to gather members and disseminate results and innovation during these coming weeks and months under lock-down. And hopefully after!

At this point, the interface will be Blackboard Collaborate, run from Edinburgh by Michael Gutmann, for which neither registration nor software is required. Before each talk, a guest link will be mailed to the mailing list. Please register here to join the list.

The seminar is planned on Thursdays at either 9am or more likely 11:30 am UK (+1GMT) time, as we are still debating the best schedule to reach as many populated time zones as possible!, and the first speakers are

09.04.2020 Dennis Prangle Distilling importance sampling
23.04.2020 Ivis Kerama and Richard Everitt Rare event SMC²
07.05.2020 Umberto Picchini Stratified sampling and bootstrapping for ABC