Archive for randomness

In Bayesian statistics, data is considered nonrandom…

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , on July 12, 2021 by xi'an

A rather weird question popped up on X validated, namely why does Bayesian analysis rely on a sampling distribution if the data is nonrandom. While a given sample is is indeed a deterministic object and hence nonrandom from this perspective!, I replied that on the opposite Bayesian analysis was setting the observed data as the realisation of a random variable in order to condition upon this realisation to construct a posterior distribution on the parameter. Which is quite different from calling it nonrandom! But, presumably putting too much meaning and spending too much time on this query, I remain somewhat bemused by what line of thought led to this question…

laser sharp random number generator

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , on April 1, 2021 by xi'an

Caught the headline of Science News on a super-fast random number generator based on a dysfunctional laser! Producing “254 trillion random digits per second”.

“…when the laser is shined on a surface, its light contains a constantly changing pattern of tiny pinpricks that brighten and dim randomly. The brightness at each spot in the pattern over time can be translated by a computer into a random series of ones and zeros.”

I presume this is covered in the original Science paper [which I cannot access] but the parallel series of 0’s and 1’s should be checked to produce independent Bernoulli B(½) variates before being turned into a genuine random number generator.

QMC at CIRM

Posted in Mountains, pictures, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on October 21, 2020 by xi'an

certified RNGs

Posted in Statistics with tags , , , , , , , on April 27, 2020 by xi'an

A company called Gaming Laboratories International (GLI) is delivering certificates of randomness. Apparently using Marsaglia’s DieHard tests. Here are some unforgettable quotes from their webpage:

“…a Random Number Generator (RNG) is a key component that MUST be adequately and fully tested to ensure non-predictability and no biases exist towards certain game outcomes.”

“GLI has the most experienced and robust RNG testing methodologies in the world. This includes software-based (pseudo-algorithmic) RNG’s, Hardware RNG’s, and hybrid combinations of both.”

“GLI uses custom software written and validated through the collaborative effort of our in-house mathematicians and industry consultants since our inception in 1989. An RNG Test Suite is applied for randomness testing.”

“No lab in the world provides the level of iGaming RNG assurance that GLI does. Don’t take a chance with this most critical portion of your iGaming system.”
 

really random generators [again!]

Posted in Books, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , , on March 2, 2020 by xi'an

A pointer sent me to Chemistry World and an article therein about “really random numbers“. Or “truly” random numbers. Or “exactly” random numbers. Not particularly different from the (in)famous lava lamp generator!

“Cronin’s team has developed a robot that can automatically grow crystals in a 10 by 10 array of vials, take photographs of them, and use measurements of their size, orientation, and colour to generate strings of random numbers. The researchers analysed the numbers generated from crystals grown in three solutions – including a solution of copper sulfate – and found that they all passed statistical tests for the quality of their randomness.” Chemistry World, Tom Metcalfe, 18 February 2020

The validation of this truly random generator is thus exactly the same as a (“bad”) pseudo-random generator, namely that in the law of large number sense, it fits the predicted behaviour. And thus the difference between them cannot be statistical, but rather cryptographic:

“…we considered the encryption capability of this random number generator versus that of a frequently used pseudorandom number generator, the Mersenne Twister.” Lee et al., Matter, February 10, 2020

Meaning that the knowledge of the starting point and of the deterministic transform for the Mersenne Twister makes it feasible to decipher, which is not the case for a physical and non-reproducible generator as the one advocated. One unclear aspect of the proposed generator is the time required to produce 10⁶, even though the authors mention that “the bit-generation rate is significantly lower than that in other methods”.