**P**ierre Jacob, Fredrik Lindsten, and Thomas Schön recently arXived a paper on coupled particle filters. A coupling problem that proves to be much more complicated than expected, due to the discrete nature of particle filters. The starting point of the paper is the use of common (e.g., uniform) random numbers for the generation of each entry in the particle system at each time t, which maximal correlation gets damaged by the resampling steps (even when using the same uniforms). One suggestion for improving the correlation between entries at each time made in the paper is to resort to optimal transport, using the distance between particles as the criterion. A cheaper alternative is inspired from multi-level Monte Carlo. It builds a joint multinomial distribution by optimising the coupling probability. *[Is there any way to iterate this construct instead of considering only the extreme cases of identical values versus independent values?]* The authors also recall a “sorted sampling” method proposed by Mike Pitt in 2002, which is to rely on the empirical cdfs derived from the particle systems and on the inverse cdf technique, which is the approach I would have first considered. Possibly with a smooth transform of both ecdf’s in order to optimise the inverse cdf move. Actually, I have trouble with the notion that the ancestors of a pair of particles should matter. Unless one envisions a correlation of the entire path, but I am ensure how one can make paths correlated (besides coupling). And how this impacts likelihood estimation. As shown in the above excerpt, the coupled approximations produce regular versions and, despite the negative bias, fairly accurate evaluations of likelihood ratios, which is all that matters in an MCMC implementation. The paper also proposes a smoothing algorithm based on Rhee and Glynn (2012) debiasing technique, which operates on expectations against the smoothing distribution (conditional on a value of the parameter θ). Which may connect with the notion of simulating correlated paths. The interesting part is that, due to the coupling, the Rhee and Glynn unbiased estimator has a finite (if random) stopping time.

## Archive for smoothing

## coupled filters

Posted in Kids, Statistics, University life with tags bootstrap filter, debiasing, ecdf, filtering, multi-level Monte Carlo, optimal transport, particle system, smoothing, sorted sampling, unbiased estimation on July 11, 2016 by xi'an## Paret’oothed importance sampling and infinite variance [guest post]

Posted in Kids, pictures, R, Statistics, University life with tags central limit theorem, generalised Pareto distribution, importance sampling, infinite variance estimators, Pareto distribution, Pareto smoothed importance sampling, smoothing on November 17, 2015 by xi'an*[Here are some comments sent to me by Aki Vehtari in the sequel of the previous posts.]*

The following is mostly based on our arXived paper with Andrew Gelman and the references mentioned there.

Koopman, Shephard, and Creal (2009) proposed to make a sample based estimate of the existence of the moments using generalized Pareto distribution fitted to the tail of the weight distribution. The number of existing moments is less than 1/k (when k>0), where k is the shape parameter of generalized Pareto distribution.

When k<1/2, the variance exists and the central limit theorem holds. Chen and Shao (2004) show further that the rate of convergence to normality is faster when higher moments exist. When 1/2≤k<1, the variance does not exist (but mean exists), the generalized central limit theorem holds, and we may assume the rate of convergence is faster when k is closer to 1/2.

In the example with “Exp(1) proposal for an Exp(1/2) target”, k=1/2 and we are truly on the border.

In our experiments in the arXived paper and in Vehtari, Gelman, and Gabry (2015), we have observed that Pareto smoothed importance sampling (PSIS) usually converges well also with k>1/2 but k close to 1/2 (let’s say k<0.7). But if k<1 and k is close to 1 (let’s say k>0.7) the convergence is much worse and both naïve importance sampling and PSIS are unreliable.

Two figures are attached, which show the results comparing IS and PSIS in the Exp(1/2) and Exp(1/10) examples. The results were computed with repeating 1000 times a simulation with 10000 samples in each. We can see the bad performance of IS in both examples as you also illustrated. In Exp(1/2) case, PSIS is also to produce much more stable results. In Exp(1/10) case, PSIS is able to reduce the variance of the estimate, but it is not enough to avoid a big bias.

It would be interesting to have more theoretical justification why infinite variance is not so big problem if k is close to 1/2 (e.g. how the convergence rate is related to the amount of fractional moments).

I guess that max ω[t] / ∑ ω[t] in Chaterjee and Diaconis has some connection to the tail shape parameter of the generalized Pareto distribution, but it is likely to be much noisier as it depends on the maximum value instead of a larger number of tail samples as in the approach by Koopman, Shephard, and Creal (2009).A third figure shows an example where the variance is finite, with “an Exp(1) proposal for an Exp(1/1.9) target”, which corresponds to k≈0.475 < 1/2. Although the variance is finite, we are close to the border and the performance of basic IS is bad. There is no sharp change in the practical behaviour with a finite number of draws when going from finite variance to infinite variance. Thus, I think it is not enough to focus on the discrete number of moments, but for example, the Pareto shape parameter k gives us more information. Koopman, Shephard, and Creal (2009) also estimated the Pareto shape k, but they formed a hypothesis test whether the variance is finite and thus discretising the information in k, and assuming that finite variance is enough to get good performance.

## Bayesian filtering and smoothing [book review]

Posted in Books, Statistics, Travel, University life with tags book review, CHANCE, EM algorithm, filtering, IMS Textbooks, Kalman filter, MAP estimators, particle filter, particle MCMC, plagiarism, Simo Särkkä, smoothing, The Monty Hall problem on February 25, 2015 by xi'an**W**hen in Warwick last October, I met Simo Särkkä, who told me he had published an IMS monograph on Bayesian filtering and smoothing the year before. I thought it would be an appropriate book to review for CHANCE and tried to get a copy from Oxford University Press, unsuccessfully. I thus bought my own book that I received two weeks ago and took the opportunity of my Czech vacations to read it… *[A warning pre-empting accusations of self-plagiarism: this is a preliminary draft for a review to appear in CHANCE under my true name!]*

“From the Bayesian estimation point of view both the states and the static parameters are unknown (random) parameters of the system.” (p.20)

Bayesian filtering and smoothing is an introduction to the topic that essentially starts from ground zero. Chapter 1 motivates the use of filtering and smoothing through examples and highlights the naturally Bayesian approach to the problem(s). Two graphs illustrate the difference between filtering and smoothing by plotting for the same series of observations the successive confidence bands. The performances are obviously poorer with filtering but the fact that those intervals are point-wise rather than joint, i.e., that the graphs do not provide a confidence band. (The exercise section of that chapter is superfluous in that it suggests re-reading Kalman’s original paper and rephrases the Monty Hall paradox in a story unconnected with filtering!) Chapter 2 gives an introduction to Bayesian statistics in general, with a few pages on Bayesian computational methods. A first remark is that the above quote is both correct and mildly confusing in that the parameters can be consistently estimated, while the latent states cannot. A second remark is that justifying the MAP as associated with the 0-1 loss is incorrect in continuous settings. The third chapter deals with the batch updating of the posterior distribution, i.e., that the posterior at time t is the prior at time t+1. With applications to state-space systems including the Kalman filter. The fourth to sixth chapters concentrate on this Kalman filter and its extension, and I find it somewhat unsatisfactory in that the collection of such filters is overwhelming for a neophyte. And no assessment of the estimation error when the model is misspecified appears at this stage. And, as usual, I find the unscented Kalman filter hard to fathom! The same feeling applies to the smoothing chapters, from Chapter 8 to Chapter 10. Which mimic the earlier ones. Continue reading