## Another harmonic mean

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , on May 21, 2022 by xi'an

Yet another paper that addresses the approximation of the marginal likelihood by a truncated harmonic mean, a popular theme of mine. A 2020 paper by Johannes Reich, entitled Estimating marginal likelihoods from the posterior draws through a geometric identity and published in Monte Carlo Methods and Applications.

The geometric identity it aims at exploiting is that

$m(x) = \frac{\int_A \,\text d\theta}{\int_A \pi(\theta|x)\big/\pi(\theta)f(x|\theta)\,\text d\theta}$

for any (positive volume) compact set $A$. This is exactly the same identity as in an earlier and uncited 2017 paper by Ana Pajor, with the also quite similar (!) title Estimating the Marginal Likelihood Using the Arithmetic Mean Identity and which I discussed on the ‘Og, linked with another 2012 paper by Lenk. Also discussed here. This geometric or arithmetic identity is again related to the harmonic mean correction based on a HPD region A that Darren Wraith and myself proposed at MaxEnt 2009. And that Jean-Michel and I presented at Frontiers of statistical decision making and Bayesian analysis in 2010.

In this avatar, the set A is chosen close to an HPD region, once more, with a structure that allows for an exact computation of its volume. Namely an ellipsoid that contains roughly 50% of the simulations from the posterior (rather than our non-intersecting union of balls centered at the 50% HPD points), which assumes a Euclidean structure of the parameter space (or, in other words, depends on the parameterisation)In the mixture illustration, the author surprisingly omits Chib’s solution, despite symmetrised versions avoiding the label (un)switching issues. . What I do not get is how this solution gets around the label switching challenge in that set A remains an ellipsoid for multimodal posteriors, which means it either corresponds to a single mode [but then how can a simulation be restricted to a “single permutation of the indicator labels“?] or it covers all modes but also the unlikely valleys in-between.

## evidence estimation in finite and infinite mixture models

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , on May 20, 2022 by xi'an

Adrien Hairault (PhD student at Dauphine), Judith and I just arXived a new paper on evidence estimation for mixtures. This may sound like a well-trodden path that I have repeatedly explored in the past, but methinks that estimating the model evidence doth remain a notoriously difficult task for large sample or many component finite mixtures and even more for “infinite” mixture models corresponding to a Dirichlet process. When considering different Monte Carlo techniques advocated in the past, like Chib’s (1995) method, SMC, or bridge sampling, they exhibit a range of performances, in terms of computing time… One novel (?) approach in the paper is to write Chib’s (1995) identity for partitions rather than parameters as (a) it bypasses the label switching issue (as we already noted in Hurn et al., 2000), another one is to exploit  Geyer (1991-1994) reverse logistic regression technique in the more challenging Dirichlet mixture setting, and yet another one a sequential importance sampling solution à la  Kong et al. (1994), as also noticed by Carvalho et al. (2010). [We did not cover nested sampling as it quickly becomes onerous.]

Applications are numerous. In particular, testing for the number of components in a finite mixture model or against the fit of a finite mixture model for a given dataset has long been and still is an issue of much interest and diverging opinions, albeit yet missing a fully satisfactory resolution. Using a Bayes factor to find the right number of components K in a finite mixture model is known to provide a consistent procedure. We furthermore establish there the consistence of the Bayes factor when comparing a parametric family of finite mixtures against the nonparametric ‘strongly identifiable’ Dirichlet Process Mixture (DPM) model.

## [more than] everything you always wanted to know about marginal likelihood

Posted in Books, Statistics, University life with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 10, 2022 by xi'an

Earlier this year, F. Llorente, L. Martino, D. Delgado, and J. Lopez-Santiago have arXived an updated version of their massive survey on marginal likelihood computation. Which I can only warmly recommend to anyone interested in the matter! Or looking for a base camp to initiate a graduate project. They break the methods into four families

1. Deterministic approximations (e.g., Laplace approximations)
2. Methods based on density estimation (e.g., Chib’s method, aka the candidate’s formula)
3. Importance sampling, including sequential Monte Carlo, with a subsection connecting with MCMC
4. Vertical representations (mostly, nested sampling)

Besides sheer computation, the survey also broaches upon issues like improper priors and alternatives to Bayes factors. The parts I would have done in more details are reversible jump MCMC and the long-lasting impact of Geyer’s reverse logistic regression (with the noise contrasting extension), even though the link with bridge sampling is briefly mentioned there. There is even a table reporting on the coverage of earlier surveys. Of course, the following postnote of the manuscript

The Christian Robert’s blog deserves a special mention , since Professor C. Robert has devoted several entries of his blog with very interesting comments regarding the marginal likelihood estimation and related topics.

does not in the least make me less objective! Some of the final recommendations

• use of Naive Monte Carlo [simulate from the prior] should be always considered [assuming a proper prior!]
• a multiple-try method is a good choice within the MCMC schemes
• optimal umbrella sampling estimator is difficult and costly to implement , so its best performance may not be achieved in practice
• adaptive importance sampling uses the posterior samples to build a suitable normalized proposal, so it benefits from localizing samples in regions of high posterior probability while preserving the properties of standard importance sampling
• Chib’s method is a good alternative, that provide very good performances [but is not always available]
• the success [of nested sampling] in the literature is surprising.

## marginal likelihood with large amounts of missing data

Posted in Books, pictures, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , on October 20, 2020 by xi'an

In 2018, Panayiota Touloupou, research fellow at Warwick, and her co-authors published a paper in Bayesian analysis that somehow escaped my radar, despite standing in my first circle of topics of interest! They construct an importance sampling approach to the approximation of the marginal likelihood, the importance function being approximated from a preliminary MCMC run, and consider the special case when the sampling density (i.e., the likelihood) can be represented as the marginal of a joint density. While this demarginalisation perspective is rather usual, the central point they make is that it is more efficient to estimate the sampling density based on the auxiliary or latent variables than to consider the joint posterior distribution of parameter and latent in the importance sampler. This induces a considerable reduction in dimension and hence explains (in part) why the approach should prove more efficient. Even though the approximation itself is costly, at about 5 seconds per marginal likelihood. But a nice feature of the paper is to include the above graph that includes both computing time and variability for different methods (the blue range corresponding to the marginal importance solution, the red range to RJMCMC and the green range to Chib’s estimate). Note that bridge sampling does not appear on the picture but returns a variability that is similar to the proposed methodology.

## the [not so infamous] arithmetic mean estimator

Posted in Books, Statistics with tags , , , , , , , , , on June 15, 2018 by xi'an

“Unfortunately, no perfect solution exists.” Anna Pajor

Another paper about harmonic and not-so-harmonic mean estimators that I (also) missed came out last year in Bayesian Analysis. The author is Anna Pajor, whose earlier note with Osiewalski I also spotted on the same day. The idea behind the approach [which belongs to the branch of Monte Carlo methods requiring additional simulations after an MCMC run] is to start as the corrected harmonic mean estimator on a restricted set A as to avoid tails of the distributions and the connected infinite variance issues that plague the harmonic mean estimator (an old ‘Og tune!). The marginal density p(y) then satisfies an identity involving the prior expectation of the likelihood function restricted to A divided by the posterior coverage of A. Which makes the resulting estimator unbiased only when this posterior coverage of A is known, which does not seem realist or efficient, except if A is an HPD region, as suggested in our earlier “safe” harmonic mean paper. And efficient only when A is well-chosen in terms of the likelihood function. In practice, the author notes that P(A|y) is to be estimated from the MCMC sequence and that the set A should be chosen to return large values of the likelihood, p(y|θ), through importance sampling, hence missing somehow the double opportunity of using an HPD region. Hence using the same default choice as in Lenk (2009), an HPD region which lower bound is derived as the minimum likelihood in the MCMC sample, “range of the posterior sampler output”. Meaning P(A|y)=1. (As an aside, the paper does not produce optimality properties or even heuristics towards efficiently choosing the various parameters to be calibrated in the algorithm, like the set A itself. As another aside, the paper concludes with a simulation study on an AR(p) model where the marginal may be obtained in closed form if stationarity is not imposed, which I first balked at, before realising that even in this setting both the posterior and the marginal do exist for a finite sample size, and hence the later can be estimated consistently by Monte Carlo methods.) A last remark is that computing costs are not discussed in the comparison of methods.

The final experiment in the paper is aiming at the marginal of a mixture model posterior, operating on the galaxy benchmark used by Roeder (1990) and about every other paper on mixtures since then (incl. ours). The prior is pseudo-conjugate, as in Chib (1995). And label-switching is handled by a random permutation of indices at each iteration. Which may not be enough to fight the attraction of the current mode on a Gibbs sampler and hence does not automatically correct Chib’s solution. As shown in Table 7 by the divergence with Radford Neal’s (1999) computations of the marginals, which happen to be quite close to the approximation proposed by the author. (As an aside, the paper mentions poor performances of Chib’s method when centred at the posterior mean, but this is a setting where the posterior mean is meaningless because of the permutation invariance. As another, I do not understand how the RMSE can be computed in this real data situation.) The comparison is limited to Chib’s method and a few versions of arithmetic and harmonic means. Missing nested sampling (Skilling, 2006; Chopin and X, 2011), and attuned importance sampling as in Berkoff et al. (2003), Marin, Mengersen and X (2005), and the most recent Lee and X (2016) in Bayesian Analysis.